This study examined the relationship between ways of knowing and perceived interaction, satisfaction, and English learning achievement in two modes of interaction: online chat and face-to-face. It was hypothesized that if in more cooperative situations, connected knowing (CK) intervenes more often than separate knowing (SK), the frequency of messages will increase. The results show that within each mode of discussion, higher CK students perceived that they interacted more than lower CK students. This finding suggests that culturally-specific factors should be taken into account when computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments are designed. It is important to recognize how epistemological beliefs may impact interaction. By considering the beliefs underlying a person's ways of knowing, educators can improve learning outcomes.
We analyzed writing activities of students and teaching strategies of teachers using worksheets for the students to summarize a series of TV program “Mieru-Rekishi”, which was broadcasted by NHK for learning history in 6th grades of elementary schools. To foster thinking skill through viewing the TV program, the worksheets include a process of problem solving. As the result of analyzing writing activities of students using the worksheets, a quantity of characters increased and a quality of their writing also improved by using the worksheets. In addition, students used their own strategies to distinguish and connect the information. The teacher influenced their strategies. Another analysis was an interview to six teachers using the TV program and worksheets. Three major teacher strategies were found: 1) setting a viewing situation, 2) showing and sharing ideas of students, and 3) setting learning activities to summarize and discuss their ideas.