In Japan, we preserve agricultural lands by several policies like production green space. This paper evaluates the efficiency of these policies. Basically, these policies decrease the welfare level of urban residents. But, if residents feel benefits from amenity and enormous transaction cost is necessary when the urban land use is converted to the agricultural land use, there are some case in which preservation of agricultural lands is supported.
The 2022 issue is the concern that farmland that is 30 years away from being designated as Production green space will be en masse turned into residential land, affecting the real estate market. In contrast, since the passage of the Basic Law for the Promotion of Urban Agriculture in 2016, the concerns have receded due to legal amendments related to Production green space and the establishment of certain systems. In the future, based on the situation of farmland expected in 2022 and beyond, urban development should be promoted to increase the value of the region by making use of urban farmland. In order to create such a city with agriculture, he pointed out that the three points should be addressed: “the establishment of a foundation for cooperation between urban farmers and urban residents,”“the establishment of a system of community development in each district,” and “the appropriate promotion of land use.
This paper examines the recent growth of urban agriculture in the United States. Since the late 20th century, spaces and practices of urban agriculture have increased substantially in US cities. This is especially significant in areas where land prices are relatively low and/or in plots that were vacant. Due to increasing interest in production and supply of local foods, urban agriculture is set to continue growth in the long term. This, however, conflicts with the potential development of land for urban land use, such as residential or commercial purposes. This paper suggests that revitalization of property where urban agriculture and local community’s interests coexist is critical to the future of urban agriculture.
Urban agriculture must be discussed from the following three perspectives: suburban farming, urban farming, and isolated farming operations located within urban areas. While the subdivision of farmland through its emancipation, which began in 1946, had a significant impact on urban planning and development in Japan, the amount of farmland located in urban areas has decreased dramatically since the time of farmland emancipation. Although the impact of the 2022 Productive Green Land problem will likely be minor, currently, urban farmland has become a hindrance to the real estate business and the creation of new businesses. As land is a limited public good, economic rationality and public interest should be prioritized, and tax incentives for urban farmland should be reconsidered in a stepwise manner.
Increase in abandoned cultivated land is a critical issue in Japan. It causes the surrounding land negative externality for example, weed invasion, agricultural pest, and illegal dumping in addition to wasting land. Recently, the government relaxed the requirements for lower limits to use cultivated land to reduce abandoned cultivated land. The purpose of this paper is to see if the relaxing of lower limits reduces abandoned cultivated land. The results show that the relaxing reduces abandoned cultivated lands in municipalities with a smaller cultivated acreage per household. Lending cultivated land to corporate inhibits the growth of abandoned cultivated land.