In this paper, the school counselors’ skill at evaluating their own effectiveness was discussed in relation to the American school counselor training system. In the United States, training for the evaluation of skills was conducted in graduate schools, and the national standard of school counselors defines the appropriate manner by which to evaluate school counselors. There are differences in the expected roles of school counselors both in Japan and in the United States, since Japanese school counselors were dispatched to deal with increasing bullying and non-attendance at school. Regardless of these differences, there are many aspects that we can learn from the school counseling practices in the United States. In this paper, the comprehensive school counseling theory and system (Gysbers & Henderson, 2000) is discussed in terms of their applicability to the Japanese school counseling system and the training possibilities.
The purpose of this study is to discuss the merits and limitations of using practical and qualitative research methods in evaluating student counseling system. Clinical psychologists and other members of a community will evaluate services together efficiently when they use practical and qualitative methods, such as action research, case study, and practical fieldwork. Using them is not only useful for assuring reliability and validity of evaluation, but also for developing a more collaborative relationship between clinical psychologists and other people concerned in student counseling. A study which evaluates a student counseling system by interviewing faculty is presented as an example of this type of study.
Recently in Japan, although the implementations of the school counseling programs have been increased rapidly, the evaluation researches on those are very insufficient. One of the reasons of the insufficiency seems to be poor understandings of the evaluation research in Japan. In this paper, a textbook on the evaluation research which emphasizes the evaluation hierarchy is introduced, what are the needed evaluation researches in the field of school counseling in Japan is discussed. The school counseling programs in Japan is in the early stages of planning, and consequently the needs assessment and the program theory assessment, namely the formative evaluation is needed. The practices including the evaluation researches implemented by the author and her colleagues arc introduced as well.