The Great East Japan Earthquake brought serious damage to the hearts of children. The long-term shelter life also deteriorated their psycho-somatic condition. We carried out the "Delivery of playing" activities in the shelter of the disa ter area on the purpose of psychological support to the children and their families. A single-type and a continuous-type of Demae activities were carried out by both various professionals and non-professionals. In this paper, “Delivery of playing” activity wa reported, and the meaning and the problems of the activity were discussed from the four following points. I) “Delivery of playing” activities as the community approach, 2) Psychological support of the children by “playing”, 3) Community psychological support for both children and their families, 4) The establishment of the “Delivery of playing” activities a a community psychological program in the disaster areas.
The Great East Japan Earthquake did enormous damage to our university. We, the university counseling center staff investigated what was needed to redesign and improve the student support system and practiced various activities. Here, the activities of student counseling services for approximately two months after the earthquake are reported and the meaning of these activities and problems that were encountered are discussed from the perspective of “Providing support for campus community faced crises.” The early support conducted with students and teachers in the university were divided into four periods and they were examined from the perspective of relationships with social and living conditions, as well as from the perspective of university management Also, the support that was provided was classified into four groups, according to its objective and content It was indicated that an approach to the whole campus community, which was named the “Yui” project, contributed to recovery of various relationships from the crises, the creation of new relationships, and the construction of multilayered relationships in the university. Furthermore, it is suggested that developing an attitude of “mutual appreciation and cooperative creation” among the staff resulted in a basic attitude conducive to providing support.
In the past, women were expected to engage in unpaid work or volunteering in the communities. Now both men and women are encouraged to share various paid and unpaid roles as gender equality has been promoted. As a result, women’s lifestyles have become diverse. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the psychological process through which middle-aged women in contemporary Japanese society change their life careers, using the concept of “life career anchors”. The research is based on interviews with a cohort of 20 women who have changed their life careers at midlife. Women change life careers when they arc challenged by a crisis such as family troubles or unemployment. While experiencing conflict, they become aware of their true abilities, needs and values, and these new life career anchors lead them to new life career choices. Six anchor types are indicated as specific to the middle-aged women in Japan: “horizontal connection”, “self-searching (including moratorium)”, “independence”, “transforming anger into energy”, “work-life balance” and “choosing the same role”. The paper also argues that women’s choices are influenced by the social policy as well as personal factors.
Present study paid attention to “flexible teaching” written in the national curricurum for kindergarten. An effective behavior support program was examined targeting the child with developmental disabilies enrolled in the kindergarten. “Basic teaching skills” were conformed to the kindergarten condition and the teacher’s needs. These didn't only contribute on to the teacher's individual professional development, and it was effective in building of kindergarten-wide behavior support system, as well. And two studies went in order. In the study I, it was examined that the effects of “basic teaching skills” in the university educational counseling room became behavior support. In the study 2, teacher’s and child’s change in behavior were evaluated at the kindergarten setting. A university staff went through behavior consultation based on the direct observation in the kindergarten in case conference. “Flexible teaching” was realized by a private kindergarten and collaboration of the university educational counseling room being guaranteed, and it became possible that the reflection of the teaching process and the opportunity of the evaluation were set up by the performance feedback procedure.
The authors carried out a field study and a questionnaire targeting chiefly the former town of Kaifu in Tokushima Prefecture, which has low suicide rates, to make a comparison with neighboring towns and regions with high suicide rates. They identified five factors unique to Kaifu: loose social bonds, a low sense of clannish loyality, less resistance to help-seeking, assessing another person on the basis of their character, and positive political participation. The town has another element that is not found elsewhere: a mutual aid-organization originating in the Edo Period, called Hobaigumi. For the purpose of accurately understanding the characteristics of Hobaigumi, a similar organization, the Wakamonogumi in Town A, was analyzed. A comparison between the two groups revealed several differences in operational principles and rules, despite structural similarities. The Hobaigumi ha, an innate mechanism that eases stress. Among the characteristics of the organization, loose bonds, little tendency towards exclusion, and assessing another person on the basis of their character coincided with the peculiarities of the community in Kaifu town. The findings of the study, which is that the Hobaigumi, which belongs to an area with low suicide rates, has several characteristics in common with the community, supports the hypothesis that the lower stress on Kaifu residents compared with residents elsewhere helps lower the risk of suicide.