A tsunami refuge building has been requiring the structural resistance to an earthquake and a tsunami. However, a fire fueled by hazardous materials and houses flowed by tsunami may break out in the flooded area. Therefore, there is a concern for another risk that such a fire due to tsunami will spread to a tsunami refuge building. The purpose of this study is to present basic data for understanding the risk of tsunami-fire to a tsunami refuge building through case study. In this paper, we analyzed a few cases of fires which had occurred in the vicinity of tsunami refuge buildings in Kesen-numa, Miyagi Prefecture, in the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), based on the image records and the evacuees’ testimonies. As a result, we obtained the three types of fires : (1) a mass of fires floating and drifting on seawater fueled by floating timber observed around a public hall ; (2) fires surrounding a nursing home fueled by a mass of houses and broken pieces arriving by tsunami ; and (3) A fire fueled by a neighboring building surviving tsunami non-flowed out observed around a hotel.
A job site of firefighters is oppressive working conditions compared to the work environment, such as offices and production plants. The burden of activities under such a working environment leads to physical and mental fatigue of firefighters. A new designed fire fighting activity model was proposed to make clear the level of loads to the fire fighters’ cardiorespiratory function and the body in the operation under the following conditions. First is that data with good reproducibility showing the relationship between cardiopulmonary function and/or the vital signs and the degree of load can be obtained under stable conditions and second is that it is composed of the items with the adequate time in the data analysis in each activity. By comparing the time variation of eardrum temperature rise, the initial rise and maximum attained value of instantaneous heart rate during fire fighting operation in eight story training building, the applicability of the proposed model was verified.
Fire volunteers in Japan not only act for firefighting but also act for disaster preventions and keeping the safety of communities. Two surveys were conducted for both the fire volunteers and the citizens in Kitakyushu City. Although the citizens expect fire volunteers to do fire prevention activities other than firefighting, the fire volunteers do not place much stress on fire preventions. The fire volunteers eagerly join local community organizations. Thus, the fire volunteers can play important roles in organizing local citizens for creating safer local communities in addition to providing their own services as volunteer firefighters.