Recently historical documents were found in Nishi-Kire village (in the southeast of Osaka city).Among those documents,land tax materials in the 17th Century were considered in this note. At the result some differences were found compared the surrounding villages about the introduction time of the system to correct land tax. During the 17th Century, floods and droughts happened many times around that village. At those times, the load and the peasants might have common understandings for need to be adjusted the amount of land tax collection.
An archaeological research has revealed that a group of magnificent palace buildings had been constructed in the center of the latter Naniwa-no-Miya Palace, and the avenues of the residential district of Naniwa-Kyo were laid out in a grid pattern based on Jobo 条坊 system. The findings led to an image of latter Naniwa-no-Miya Palace and Kyo area to have prospered with a large population. However, that impression was never well-founded, therefore, needed to be re-examined in the light of two phases; namely, the ordinary times; and special occasions, such as the Emperor’s visit to the area or the transfer of the capital.
According to the ancient documents of Tairou 大粮 application forms and other analyses, in the ordinary times, individual government office did not hold its own building in the capital, but simply had their desks placed in the corner of a joint government complex or a joint premise. These facilities were typically maintained by one or two lower officials or Sichou仕丁 who were supervised by Zonin 雑任, such as Shibu 使部, low-ranking bureaucrats. Noblemen held their mansions in the residential Kyo district of the latter Naniwa-Kyo, indeed, but they never actually resided there.The residences were managed by the butlers. Those lower officials and butlers might have kept their own houses in the area and lived with their families. Nevertheless, the area was never densely inhabited.
The atmosphere would, however, dramatically change on special occasions when the emperor was visiting the latter Naniwa-no-Miya Palace and when the capital was transferred. With many government officials present in the capital, the bureaucracy was functioning and noblemen, with their families, also came to reside in the area during the period.
In the past, I once evaluated a social project carried out by the Osaka Police after the Russo-Japanese War as “uniform, bureaucratic and compulsory”. This paper examines Takeda Shinjiro's practice by taking up two reformatories operated by Takeda, who mainly took charge of the police social work, to reexamine the police social work.
Takeda was a person who was able to take into account the human rights of boys, such as incorporating the opinions of “bad boys” as part of the facility management. Takeda's practice can be evaluated as having a personality that does not fit within the framework of police social work,which is based on “uniform, bureaucratic, and compulsory” control.
Takeda Juku, which is thought to have reflected Takeda's intentions through its management,has implemented various neighborhood insurance projects for local residents. After the 1918 Rice riot, the police reconsidered the way they had been forced to do social work. The police then carried out a variety of neighborhood insurance projects such as childcare services. The neighboring insurance business at Takeda Juku had something in common with the police movement after the Rice riot. In other words, Takeda practice at Takeda Juku is also positioned in the historical context of making the police social work a neighbor business after the Rice riot.
Yamane Tokutaro (1889-1973) is a prominent historian who discovered and studied The Naniwanomiya Palace site. His personal effects are stored in the Osaka Museum of History. Among these were several sutra tablets and ink rubbings.These seems to have been collected by Yamane himself, and belonged to Imakumano Kamezuka sutra mound in Kyoto.
The Imakumano Kamezuka sutra tablets were discovered by chance in 1926, but since then no serious investigation has been carried out, and the details remain unknown. In addition to the fragments reported at the time of discovery, it seems that many fragments were collected. Other organizations also store fragments that are reportedly found in Imakumano Kamezuka sutra mound.
These ink rubbings collected by Yamane have been never known before. Therefore, it is important for revealing Imakumano Kamezuka sutra tablets which still does not fully understand. In recent, the author has determined that some of them are taken from the fragments held in the Tokyo National Museum Collection.
As a result of further arrangement and examination of the ink rubbings made by Yamane, it was found that the number of fragments recorded was 28, and 21 tablets were restored. This is a quantity that is almost equal to the number of fragments of the ImaKumano Kamezuka Gakyo. The restored tablets ls will be used to restore the overall composition of the tablets.
In the vicinity of ShitennojiTemple, built in the Asuka period, ruins from ancient times to the early modern times have been found by excavation.
In the Middle Ages, a city was formed around ShitennojiTemple, and at the end of the 15th century, it was a huge city that was said to have “7,000 houses in Tennoji.”
I used the results of excavations around ShitennojiTemple to examine the appearance of the city around ShitennojiTemple in the Middle Ages.
Wide trenches are found in the eastern and northern parts of ShitennojiTemple, but as the times change, they will be made closer to the precincts.
In addition, it was estimated that the town did not spread due to topographical constraints.
Many pillar holes were found in the western part of ShitennojiTemple, and it was estimated that the city was lined with many buildings.
It was assumed that the appearance of the city dates back to the Heian period and was a completed block in the Muromachi period.
An 8 mm film owned by the Osaka museum of history is named “Natural monument, Tajima scenic spot, Izushi Tsuruyama(crane hill)”.This paper, examines the background and significance of this filming, reflecting on the history of Izushi Tsuruyama. Izushi Tsuruyama, designated as a natural monument as a nesting place for orient white storks, had a tea house and was crowded with to urists. However, due to the cutting of trees in the nesting place, many orient white storks escaped,and Izushi Tsuruyama has been deselected as a natural monument. This video shows the behavior of orient white storks before extinction, and Izushi Tsuruyama, a popular tourist spot, and can be used as a reference for studying the ecology of Japanese orient white storks, past environment,and prewar tourism. In addition, based on the idea of “national history of animals” designed by Yanagida Kunio, I tried to show the possibility that this video could be an opportunity to consider the relationship between people and nature.