This paper aims to show the impact on effectiveness which the bus service is combined with demand responsive transit (DRT). We present four mixed integer liner problems for design bus route network that maximizes the capturing amount of origin-destination (OD) flow and calculating the number of vehicles and mileage of DRT that carry flow which bus does not pass. The OD flow is estimated by population and facility distribution. Through three case studies, we observed that the combination of bus and DRT is economically advantage due to a linear concentration of demand distributions. Moreover, it shows that DRT system has advantages in an environmental indicator, and access movement caused by bus service contributes from a healthy viewpoint.
Reducing abandoned farmland is an urgent policy issue in Japan. Using the 2015 Census of Agriculture and Forestry in Japan, we explore spatial patterns of abandoned farmland for 1,667 municipalities in 45 prefectures in Japan. Further, we examine geographic factors of abandoned farmland and their regional differences, employing both non-spatial regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. The results reveal the existence of spatial clustering of high and low rates of abandoned farmland. The regression results indicate that higher rates of non-commercial farm households, Kengyo-farm households, lending farmland, next generation of commercial farm households, farmers under 45 years old, and producers with more than 3 ha are significantly associated with lower rates of abandoned farmland. The degrees of these associations vary by region, suggesting the importance of considering regional specific features in advancing agricultural policies.
The image of region often is not identical with the actual boundary of the region, sometimes the image crosses over the boundary. In this study, we focus on the building name, which includes place name, and analyze about the determinants of place name exuding (exuding phenomenon). We use GIS data of 23 wards of Tokyo in Japan, and focus on the 934 place names to analyze the spatial distributions. Our findings show that railway-station, high-rise buildings, and large infrastructure (river) in the region influence the place names to cross over the region because they play as a symbol in the region. Moreover, we can see low-exuding-places are located around high-exuding-places, because high-exuding-places are distributed overall in Tokyo. The average distance of exuding is nearly the same as the distance of walk, and the distance of exuding is high near the boundary of Tokyo, because of the frequent use of car in the area. It is found that the image of region is relevant to the range of life and activity.
Although there have been several studies that tried to reveal environmental factors which are related to precursor events of sex crimes, there is no research considering possibilities that the relationships of several factors may depend on characteristics of neighborhoods and that structure of street network may be relevant with occurrence of such events; both of which have already been pointed out in some studies regarding other crimes. In this research, we analyzed the relationship between a variety of factors, especially the street network characteristics and precursor events which have occurred in Tokyo Wards in the past three years. As a result, we found out relationships between the occurrence of precursor events and some of Urban Network Analysis indicators.
OpenStreetMap (OSM), well-known as one of famous and continuous Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities to establish open geospatial database, has been updated and maintained by a lot of volunteers all over the world day by day. In addition, OSM has attracted various kinds of users due to its worldwide coverage and open license. However, as volunteer mappers have generated or have edited OSM data, data quality such as positional accuracy, completeness and freshness is heterogeneous in different regions. Therefore, it is required and important for OSM users and mappers to evaluate data quality quantitatively and regularly. Especially, in Japan, there are not existing researches dealing with nationwide usability of OSM road data by comparing with other road data. Toward discussing significant criteria of data quality assessment, this paper describes the comparison results between OSM road data and Digital Road Map (DRM), on the perspective of positional difference and area coverage in 1 km grids and city boundaries.
In a depopulated area at a local government, the number of passengers using a bus service is decreasing by effects of both falling birthrate and depopulation. In such regions, bus lines eliminate many bus routes because their operation can be unprofitable. The abundant of bus services causes to lose connections with public transportations. An on-demand traffic is expected to introduce as an alternative traffic system of bus services in such areas.
One of the most critical things to operate the on-demand traffic is to determine an optimum patrol road of addresses of their users. It has been four years since Sanyo-Onoda city introduced an on-demand traffic. The number of their users of the on-demand traffic tends to increase gradually. In such situations, we try to develop a QGIS plugin to search and display the optimum patrol road in the on-demand traffic at Sanyo-Onoda city.