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全文: "うたごえ運動"
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  • 佐藤 泉
    日本文学
    2013年 62 巻 12 号 84-85
    発行日: 2013/12/10
    公開日: 2018/12/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 渡邊 史郎
    日本文学
    2012年 61 巻 6 号 66-67
    発行日: 2012/06/10
    公開日: 2017/11/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 中村 勝洋
    電子情報通信学会 基礎・境界ソサイエティ Fundamentals Review
    2012年 5 巻 3 号 283-285
    発行日: 2012/01/01
    公開日: 2012/01/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 西原 稔
    音楽教育学
    2015年 45 巻 1 号 69-72
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2017/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 西田 桐子
    比較文学
    2014年 57 巻 66-79
    発行日: 2014/03/31
    公開日: 2018/05/26
    ジャーナル フリー

     Japanese writers’ interest in black people and black culture heightened in the early 1960s due to: the Civil Rights Movement, the Emergency Meeting of the Permanent Bureau of Afro-Asian Writers held in Tokyo, and the prevalence of modern jazz. Kijima Hajime (1928-2004) was one of the leading translators of “Black literature” (kokujin-bungaku), also known as “Negro literature” at the time, currently called “African American literature”.

     Kijima was a poet and extensively translated African American literature. He translated Du Bois’ (1868-1963) autobiography as early as 1951. Only from the late 1950s did most writers begin to pay close attention to “Black literature”. Its popularity gained momentum in Japan in 1961 when The Collective Works of Black Literature (kokujin-bungaku-zenshū) was published by Hayakawa Publishers. Even from the planning stages, Kijima played a central role in editing the anthology.

     Why was Kijima so heavily involved in promoting “Black literature”? One key reason is that, as a poet, his primary focus was on oppressed working people. “Black literature” shaped his writing style, as well as other literary movements that debated the future of Japanese people after the Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War Ⅱ. His poetry was affected by ordinary people and folk rhetoric as well as the rhythm of their music, including jazz. His empathy for working people breathed life into his translation of “Black literature.” His literary philosophy deeply impacted and, in turn, was also shaped by his translation work.

  • 福地 一, 都竹 愛一郎
    テレビジョン学会誌
    1993年 47 巻 3 号 318-325
    発行日: 1993/03/20
    公開日: 2011/08/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    近年, 通信・放送分野のみならず, 電波測位・航法, リモートセンシング, 産業等, 多くの分野での電波利用が進み, 周波数の有効利用がますます重要となっている.放送分野では, その技術の歴史が, 周波数有効利用技術の歴史ともいえる.ここでは放送分野での周波数有効利用の例を紹介するとともに, 新周波数帯の開拓に関する話題を紹介する.
  • 原田 由起乃
    人文地理
    1998年 50 巻 2 号 188-203
    発行日: 1998/04/28
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    On October 23, 1954, Maemoriyama Communal Farm was established by communists who had returned from China a year before. The Farm is located in the national forest in Matsuo-mura, Iwate Prefecture of northern Japan. It is known as one of the Post-War Reclamation Settlement, but there are significant differences between Maemoriyama Farm and other farms with regards to spheres of management, ownership, community life, social and political activity, social organization, and so on. Their uniqueness was largely influenced by the Communist Party of China which made it possible for new farms to be established even under difficult circumstances and situations.
    The main purpose of the present study is to explain the uniqueness which exists in the organization and membership of the Maemoriyama Communal Dairy Farm and to analyze its managerial transformation. The author used the following methodology: 1) interview and observation 2) statistical analysis 3) analysis of organisations.
    After World War II, Japan was confronted with numerous social problems; among them shortage of food, unemployment, demobilization, and repatriation called for Governmental intervention on an emergency basis. Then the Government declared “The Emergency Outline on the Operation of Reclamation”. Accordingly on November 9, 1945, a plan was chalked out to reclaim 1, 550, 000ha of land and to enable a million pioneers settle therein. Excepting Hokkaido, Iwate prefecture was the most important place, where 100, 000 ha of land was earmarked for reclamation for 10, 000 households. Spreading over almost all of Iwate prefecture, Such settlements were established encompassing 600 meters for each (Figure 1).
    In the beginning, Maemoriyama Farm faced a harder situation than any other reclamation settlement. Obviously it was true that their goal was to establish a model communist farm as in China, and for this cooperation between them was considered very important to fight against hardness. This reclamation settlement drew many advantages through their cooperation, such as raising funds, efficiency of the reduced budget, and so on, which contributed to the enhancement of management.
    But Maemoriyama Dairy Farm is now finding it difficult to maintain the communal farm, especially the community life. Previously the Farm experienced a crisis and consequently the question of its dissolution arose. The leaders held several general meetings including every member of Farm and to discuss the problems, but everybody disagreed with the notion of dissolution.
    To sum up it is fair to say that the first generation of Farm settlers had a democratic character and a strong attachment to ideology and the common goal. The second generation, however, did not inherit the traditions of the earlier, and, in consequence, the Farm transformed significantly and ultimately the community life was dissolved.
    On the other hand, Maemoriyama Farm has the character not only of communism but also the Japanese traditional communitys. Unfortunately many of these character strength's have weakened during modernization, but the community will remain the important concept for the future society.
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