The gender gap in internal rewards in the Japanese workplace is the subject of this study. Besides monetary rewards, such as wages or fringe benefits, workers also receive rewards that affect motivation and satisfaction in the workplace. Based on previous research, this study calls these types of reward an ‘internal reward’. The aim of this study is to consider whether a gender gap in internal rewards exists in the Japanese workplace. The study examines the extent to which theory - human capital or social closure theory-explains the gap in internal rewards. social closure theory proposed by Tomaskovic-Devey has two processes: the status closure process and the status composition process. The first means that women are more excluded as the quality of a job increases; the second means that a job is devalued the more women occupy a job category. To answer the research question as to which processes are at work, I conducted surveys in two large Japanese firms: One firm (Hibari) is in the electrical machinery industry; the other (Sakura) is in the telecommunication industry. This study uses three variables to indicate internal rewards: task complexity, degree of autonomy, and supervisory responsibility. There are several findings. First, gender gaps in task complexity, degree of autonomy, and supervisory responsibility are found among Hibari production workers. The study finds gender gaps in task complexity and supervisory responsibility among Hibari non-production workers. In the case of Sakura workers, gender gaps in task complexity and supervisory responsibility are founde Second, gender gaps in task complexity and the degree of autonomy among Hibari production workers are mainly explained by the status closure process. The gender gap among Hibari non-production workers is mainly explained by human capital theory. The gender gap in degree of autonomy among Sakura workers is mainly explained by the status composition process. On the other hand,the gender gap in supervisory responsibility among Sakura workers may be explained by a process unspecified by social closure theory. The study finds that neither the human capital theory nor social closure theory adequately explains the gender gap in supervisory responsibility among Hibari production workers.
Past Research has focused on men and women in the workplace as isolated issues. However, gender relations are crucial in examining the occupational segregation seen in banks today. This paper examines the historical development of career tracking systems and the occupational segregation by gender seen in city banks today. This phenomenon was caused by both technological advances in the 1950s and restructuring of the personnel management systems of banks. At present there clearly exists a distinction between career opportunities given to men and those given to women. Certain factors have largely contributed to this development. Technological advance in the 1950s changed the job functions of men and women. Increasingly the job function of men focused on management and negotiations outside the bank whereas the job function of women focused on clerical duties using computers. Furthermore the restructuring of personnel management systems in city banks resulted in the career tracking systems (kosubetsu jinji-kanri- seido). Men, whose duties focused on management decisions, entered the “managerial track” (sogoshoku) and women, whose duties focused on clerical duties, entered the “general track” (ippanshoku). The managerial track provided many opportunities to develop worker abilities through jobs, training and so on. However, those in the general track, consisting mainly of women, were denied these opportuinities. Both factors discussed above resulted inand reproduced occupational segregation by gender seen in job promotions in banks. My research shows that two factors will lead to a change in the present situation. First, because of tecnological advances, it is increasingly difficult to divide jobs between those requiring complex judgement and manual jobs. With the “Big Bang”, this distinction will be further blurred as employees in the general track are also going to be expected to carry out sales within their bank branches. Second, the changing values of men and women can not be satisfied through the career tracking system. More women are seeking promotion and job continuation. At the same time, men's attitudes toward the demands of the managerial track are also changing. For example, men are increasingly prioritizing time spent with their family over their work.
In this paper I don't seek to address the issue of whether or the Toyota Production System (TPS) has an universal application. I would like to focus on the work content and conditions of line workers under the TPS overseas. I researched the process of transplanting the TPS into United Kingdom. In this study I analyzed four cases of major Japanese automobile firms. Nissan, Honda and Toyota set up factories in the U.K., while Isuzu-GM has a joint venture there. I tried to explain the TPS according to three job stages or levels, to wit : 1) job enlargement, 2) job enrichment and 3) participa-tion to industrial engineering. I concluded that the TPS basically functions in the transplants studied. It provides workers the opportunity of taking on jobs in any of the three job levels at the plant site. At the same time, the study found line workers couldn't have the opportunity of three job levels at all. Moreover, workers at plant site was confronted with intense pressure of not only work, but also their neighborhood which is competition with other workforces.