This study aimed to clarify how drawing children interact with objects and other children, how children transform their drawing acts, and the kinds of conceptual thinking they form in response. Participatory observation was employed in the Certified Children's Nursery classes of 5-6-year olds for six months, and an analysis was conducted using the theory of conceptual play (Fleer, 2011). Altogether, we extracted 44 episodes regarding the children’s transformation of drawing actions. The results suggest that during interaction with others, empathy for objects or others in the community results in the following internal transformations: 1) object-meaning relations, 2) role-imaginary situation relations, and 3) imaginary situation-rule relations. This has implications for the manner in which drawing acts allow children to move from spontaneous concepts to more scientific ones, thus playing an important role in promoting higher mental functions.
This research investigates the relationship between painter Tamiji Kitagawa (1894-1989) and John Sloan (1871-1951), who was a member of “the Eight” and an instructor at the Art Students League of New York. Kitagawa played an important role in Japanese art education, especially after the World War II. It is accepted that his basic idea for art education was formed during his research at the Mexican Open Air Art School from 1925 to 1936. However, little is known about his previous art experiences in New York, where he lived from 1916 to 1920 and participated in Sloan’s classes. Analyzing the transcript of Sloan’s lectures, this paper rediscovers the relationship between Kitagawa and Sloan. It suggests they used shared vocabulary, particularly in their discussion of “realism.”