Various techniques have been developed to reconstruct head and neck defects following surgery to restore function and cosmetics. Free tissue transfer using microvascular anastomosis has transformed surgical outcomes and the quality of life for head and neck cancer patients because this technique has made it possible for surgeons to perform more aggressive ablative surgery, but there is room for improvement to achieve a satisfactory survival rate. Reconstruction using the free tissue transfer technique is closely related to cardiovascular surgery because the anastomosis techniques used by head and neck surgeons are based on those of cardiovascular surgeons; thus, suggestions from cardiovascular surgeons might lead to further development of this field. The aim of this article is to present the recent general concepts of reconstruction procedures and our experiences of reconstructive surgeries of the oral cavity, mandible, maxilla, oropharynx and hypopharynx to help cardiovascular surgeons understand the reconstructions and share knowledge among themselves and with neck surgeons to develop future directions in head and neck reconstruction.
Background: Three-dimensional regenerative tissue with large bulk generally requires blood perfusion through a vascular network to maintain its viability, and one promising approach is induction of neovascular growth from the recipient bed into the tissue. To induce ingrowth of a vascular network, it is necessary to furnish the regenerative tissue with a scaffold structure for neovasculature and a delivery system for an angiogenic growth factor. As such a scaffold structure, the present study created novel hydrogel materials by chemically cross-linking alkali-treated collagen (AlCol) with trisuccinimidyl citrate (TSC). Materials and Methods: Many prototypes, consisting of several concentrations of TSC and AlCol, were implanted into the subfascial space of the rat rectus muscle, and 7 days later, the implanted materials were excised for histological analysis. Cross-sections were stained and neovascular development in the materials was evaluated by measuring vessel density, length and number of joints and branches. Results: Significant ingrowth of vascularized granulation was observed in some materials, which surpassed the angiogenic ability of MatrigelTM. Further, combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) significantly increased the vascular formation in these gels. Conclusions: The TSC-AlCol gel functioned as a favorable scaffold for neovascular formation and also as a reservoir for controlled delivery of bFGF.
Objective: To identify the outcome of below knee bypass that focuses on the functional status and to investigate whether preoperative functional status can predict these outcomes. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty one limbs in one hundred and thirty two patients that underwent below knee bypass between 2004 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were grouped as “ambulatory,” “non-ambulatory transfer” and “non-ambulatory bedridden,” according to their functional status. Clinical success was defined as the achievement of all of following end points; graft patency to wound healing, limb salvage for 1 year or until death, maintenance of ambulatory status for 1 year, and survival for 6 months. The effect of preoperative ambulatory status was analyzed. Results: The overall primary and secondary graft patency, limb salvage and survival at 1 year were 76.3%, 81.8%, 89.1% and 84.1%, respectively. The overall success rate was 62.0%. Clinical success rates for the ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups were 75.6% and 34.9% (P = 0.0009, OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.8–10.6). Conclusions: Bypass surgery is justified for maintaining the independent status of ambulatory patients. On the other hand, the high likelihood of poor outcomes for non-ambulatory patients must be considered before performing bypass surgery.
Background: The aims of this study were to assess variables associated with survival in patients undergoing ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) repair and to develop an index other than the aneurysmal diameter to predict rupture potential. Methods: This study included 43 consecutive patients who underwent open surgery for RAAAs. Results: The mortality rate was 18.6% (8/43). The ratio between the maximum aneurysmal diameter and the length (along the central axis) from the aneurysmal neck to the point at which the diameter was three-fourth of the maximum aneurysmal diameter was used as an index to predict aneurysmal rupture potential. The index score was 2.7 ± 1.2 in the RAAA and 1.9 ± 0.9 in the EAAA (p = 0.018). For aneurysms of ≤ 6-cm diameter, the index score was 3.0 ± 1.0 in the RAAA and 1.8 ± 0.9 in the EAAA (p = 0.03). All patients in the EAAA except one had an index score of < 2.3 and 6 of the 7 patients with RAAA had a score of > 3. Conclusions: The results suggest that patients with AAA having scores of > 3 are at high risk of rupture. This index would be useful for decision making regarding repair of AAA, especially in the borderline cases.
Objective: Patients and Methods: In order to assess the early outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the Japanese population, a total of 183 patients who had EVAR at eight medical centers of the National Hospital Organization were retrospectively reviewed and registered. The mean number of registered cases in each center was 23 ± 17 (4–50 cases). Patient characteristics were male sex, 84%; mean age, 77 years; age ≥ 80 years, 40%. Results: In-hospital mortality was one case (0.5%). Endoleaks were observed at the end of the procedure in 35 patients (19%: type I: n = 4, II: n = 22, III, n = 3, IV: n = 6). Early morbidity included delayed wound healing or infection (n = 7), deterioration of renal dysfunction (n = 3), stroke (n = 2), postoperative bleeding (n = 2), gastrointestinal complications (n = 2), and peripheral thromboembolism (n = 2). Eleven late deaths included one of unknown cause and six cardiovascular causes at a mean follow up of 1.0 year. Survival rates of freedom from all causes of death and from aneurysm-related death at one year were 95.4% ± 1.7% and 99.5% ± 0.5%, respectively. Interpretation: Although registered patients carry a variety of risks, early outcomes were satisfactory. EVAR is an acceptable alternative treatment modality for treating AAA.
Objective: To study the results of eversion endarteterctomy of the external carotid artery (ECA) performed as part of standard CEA at a tertiary referral center using duplex ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (18 women and 42 men) who underwent 65 carotid endarterectomies at Waikato Hospital between January 2006 and July 2007 for significant internal carotid artery (ICA) disease were studied. The procedure also included eversion endarterectomy of the ECA with sharp transection at eversion end point. Preoperative and postoperative duplex scans were performed for all patients using Acuson (USA) ultrasound machine and by one sonographer. Postoperative follow-up scans at periods between 6 weeks and 18 months were reviewed and analyzed with Ascer et al. Doppler ultrasound-scan peak systolic velocity (PSV) criteria. Results: Preoperative scans revealed significant bifurcation disease involving both ICA and ECA in all patients. The first post operative scan, done six weeks post-operatively, revealed one incomplete ECA endarterectomy, resulting in moderate (50%–74%) stenosis, while the rest had no evidence of residual ECA disease at the site of ECA endarterectomy. Over the post-operative period, sixteen (24.6%) ECA lesions and no occlusions were reported. The degree of ECA stenosis ranged from moderate to severe with PSVs ranging from 120 to 461 cm per second. All ECA lesions were ostial. Only 3 (18.7%) lesions were detected in the first nine months post operatively. Fifteen lesions were smooth and regular on duplex, while one had features of irregular residual stenosis. Eight (50%) were isolated ECA lesions, while the rest was associated with either ICA restenosis or occlusion. Conclusion: ECA disease progression detected by Duplex ultrasound following eversion endarterectomy, as a part of CEA, commonly happens after 9 months and results in recurrent ECA stenosis, in most cases. Timing and features of the lesions suggest an intimal reaction as the aetiology in most cases. Eversion endarterectomy of the ECA does not predispose to ECA occlusion.
Objective: We preoperatively assessed varicose veins by means of computed tomography (CT) with contrast injection in the veins of the lower extremity (CT venography). This paper reports the procedures, results and implications of CT venography from the surgical aspect. Methods: A total of 48 legs in 39 patients were examined. Contrast medium was diluted ten-fold and injected into the lower extremity veins, often using a dual route of injection. The images were reconstructed with the volume-rendering method. Results: CT venography clearly visualized the veins with a small amount of contrast medium and facilitated the identification of anatomy that was not suitable for passing the stripper. In addition, CT venography helped identify unusual types of varicose veins or uncommon sites of inflow of small saphenous veins. Such information was helpful for avoiding unexpected vascular injury or for minimizing skin incision. Dual-route injection was beneficial to minimize the blind zones. Doppler ultrasound could be more focused on hemodynamic assessment and determination of incision sites. Conclusions: CT Venography is feasible in all cases of varicose veins. When performed in conjunction with ultrasonography, it appears to facilitate the safe and efficient treatment of various types of varicose veins.
Aim: To assess the utility of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measurement in evaluating the outcome of vascular constructions for critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied 19 lower limbs in 18 patients who underwent arterial reconstruction for CLI from whom SPP measurements had been obtained pre- and postoperatively between 2008 and 2010. Six limbs whose ulcers had healed postoperatively were classified into group H, 7 limbs whose ulcers had not healed into group U, and 6 limbs without ulcers into group N. SPP values were compared among these groups. Results: The preoperative SPP values in all groups were <30 mmHg, without significant differences among the groups. The SPP values in groups H and N significantly improved after operation, and those in group U were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Conclusions: SPP measurement before and after arterial reconstruction is useful to assess improvement in tissue circulation and to predict the likelihood of wound healing. An SPP value ≥30 mmHg was considered necessary for wound healing, supporting the findings of the few reports in the literature on the usefulness of SPP for assessing vascular reconstruction effects on ulcer wound healing.
Giant cell arteritis (GCA), an inflammatory vasculopathy that preferentially affects medium-sized and large arteries, has diverse symptoms and varied clinical courses that can make the diagnosis difficult. We describe a 75-year-old woman in whom GCA presented as lack of a pulse in the right arm. Although steroid therapy is generally effective for treating GCA, surgical intervention provides a biopsy specimen for a definitive diagnostic study and restores blood flow in the affected limb. GCA should be considered along with atherosclerosis in cases of occlusive disease of the upper extremity, especially if the patient is an elderly woman.
Popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) is the most commonly reported peripheral artery aneurysm. The usual treatment is exclusion bypass with a saphenous vein. However, the availability of medium size covered stent graft is an attractive option. By performing this procedure percutaneously, we can shorten the hospital stay of the patient. Favourable early and long-term results have been reported; however, little is known about the durability of the procedure. Given the mobile location of the stent-graft close to the knee joint, graft damage can be expected. We describe a case of complete rupture of a Viabahn® endoprosthesis which was inserted to exclude a PAA.
A 61-year-old man complaining of lumbago and high-grade fever was admitted to our institution. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a saccular aneurysm in the infrarenal abdominal aorta and blood culture results were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. He was diagnosed with infected abdominal aortic aneurysm, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Follow-up CT demonstrated a rapidly-enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysm and a newly-developed descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. For this case, two-stage surgery consisting of extra-anatomical bypass and in-situ reconstruction using rifampicin-soaked Dacron graft was performed after an interval of 37 days. The patient was discharged 14 days after the second surgery without any complications.
Blunt traumatic injury of the innominate artery occurs infrequently but is commonly lethal. Bovine aortic arch anatomy is a predisposition to this injury. Clinical findings, chest X-ray, and computerized tomography may suggest the diagnosis, and it may be confirmed with angiography. Both interposition and bypass grafting are operative repair methods of choice. EEG monitoring confirms cerebral perfusion, thereby allowing the deferment of shunts and cardiovascular bypass with hypothermic arrest. We report a case of traumatic innominate artery pseudoaneurysm in the setting of “bovine aortic arch” anatomy, together with multiple associated injuries, including descending aorta transection. We also review the current literature on the topic.
A young male suffering from renovascular hypertension was admitted. His initial arteriogram highlighted a focal stenosis of the right renal artery. His intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) revealed increasing medial layer thickness accompanied by a mixture of both high and low echoic materials in this layer. There was also mild thickening of the intimal layer. The diagnosis of medial fibroplasia and intimal fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was made. Balloon angioplasty decreased the volume of dysplastic tissue. The IVUS images facilitated both the initial diagnosis of focal renal arterial stenosis and the evaluation of the mechanism of dilatation by angioplasty.