Cardiovascular disease is a major concern for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), especially those on hemodialysis. ESRD patients with coronary artery disease often do not have symptoms or present with atypical symptoms. Coronary lesions in ESRD patients are characterized by increased media thickness, infiltration and activation of macrophages, and marked calcification. Several studies showed worsened clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization, which were dependent on the severity of renal dysfunction. ESRD patients on hemodialysis have the most severe renal dysfunction; thus, the clinical outcomes are worse in these patients than in those with other types of renal dysfunction. Medications for primary or secondary cardiovascular prevention are also insufficient in ESRD patients. Efficacy of drug-eluting stents is inferior in ESRD patients, compared to the excellent outcomes observed in patients with normal renal function. Unsatisfactory outcomes with trials targeting cardiovascular disease in patients with ESRD emphasize a large potential to improve outcomes. Thus, optimal strategies for diagnosis, prevention, and management of cardiovascular disease should be modified in ESRD patients.
Treatment for venous thromboembolic conditions differs significantly depending on whether the condition is acute or chronic. Endovenous treatment is now available for treating the most severe cases of acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism, and the goal is rapid central clot removal to relieve life-threatening pulmonary circulation. Endovenous catheter interventions include catheter-directed thrombolysis and catheter-assisted thrombus removal. The latter is divided into aspiration thrombectomy, fragmentation, and rheolytic thrombectomy. Data from cohort studies indicate that the clinical outcome and safety after open surgical treatment and endovenous treatment may be comparable. This paper reviews the current approaches to endovenous treatment for acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism, and presents our study of hybrid treatment using a combination of local fibrinolysis, mechanical fragmentation, and clot aspiration.
We examined the outcomes of aortic remodeling for chronic type B aortic dissection (cTBD) after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR).
Objective & Methods: Thirty-eight patients underwent TEVAR for cTBD at our institution. We classified cTBD patients into the early cTBD group (16 cases, 2 weeks–4 months from onset) and late cTBD group (22 cases, >4 months from onset).
Results: There were no cases of paraplegia, stroke, and hospital death in both groups. There was no worsening of complicated cases. We achieved false lumen thrombosis in cases with a double-barreled thoracic aorta. The early cTBD group had more complete shrinkage cases (60%) than the late cTBD group (11%).
Conclusion: We obtained favorable mid-term outcomes after TEVAR for cTBD patients. Early cTBD patients obtained good aortic remodeling with TEVAR. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016; 25: 233–239.)
Objectives: Aneurysm shrinkage after EVAR is the strong factor of favorable outcomes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), and type II endoleaks is the risk factor of no aneurysm shrinkage or aneurysm enlargement in the long term. In this study, we evaluate the aortic side branches relate to early postoperative type II endoleak, and performed coil embolization for those vessels for prevention of type II endoleak.
Methods: Patency and diameter of aortic side branches including inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and lumbar artery (LA) were evaluated in 56 consecutive patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who were scheduled for EVAR. Coil embolization with Interlock was performed in 24 patients during EVAR for all patent IMA and LA with maximal diameter more than 2.0 mm. Computed tomography was performed one week after EVAR for evaluation of endoleak.
Results: In patients with IMA more than 2.5 mm in diameter, the frequency of type II endoleak was approximately 90% regardless of the number of patent LA. In case with patent IMA less than 2.5 mm or with 2 or more patent LA larger than 2.0 mm, the frequency of type II endoleak was 46 to 67%. Coil embolization for IMA was successfully performed in 15/16 patients (94%). Coil embolization of LA was performed for patent LA larger than 2.0 mm and 29 out of 45 LA (64%) were successfully occluded. There was no perioperative complication associated with coil embolization. The frequency of type II endoleak was significantly lower in patients with coil embolization than those without coil embolization (4.2% vs 58.9%, p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Patent IMA and LA in diameter larger than 2.0 mm were associated with type II endoleak one week after EVAR, and coil embolization with Interlock during EVAR is safe and effective procedure to prevent type II endoleak. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016; 25: 321–328.)
Objective: Patients of aorto-iliac aneurysms who undergo endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) require internal iliac artery (IIA) occlusion with coil embolization and its coverage with the stent graft to prevent type II endoleak after extending the endograft into the external iliac artery. However, it has become well recognized that IIA occlusion cause buttock claudication and other various sequelae due to pelvic ischemia. We retrospectively analyzed IIA occlusion outcomes.
Methods: From October 2008 to February 2015, 71 patients with aorto-iliac aneurysms underwent IIA occlusion prior to EVAR. The relationship between pelvic circulation and symptom of pelvic ischemia was studied.
Results: Buttock claudication occurred in 17 patients (22.9%) of all. Eight patients (14.8%) in unilateral IIA occlusion group (54 patients) and nine patients (52.9%) in bilateral IIA group (17 patients) had sequelae of claudication. The sacrifice of the communication of superior gluteal artery (SGA) and inferior gluteal artery (IGA) led to buttock claudication in 18 (64.3%) of 28 limbs. Instead, only 4 of 60 limbs had buttock claudication, when we preserved the communication between SGA and IGA. In all patients, staged treatment of aorto-iliac aneurysms with IIA occlusion and EVAR were done successfully without pelvic ischemic complications except for buttock claudication, and postoperative CT scanning showed no endoleakage.
Conclusion: IIA occlusion prior to EVAR is recognized as a safe and reasonable strategy. It is emphasized that preservation of the communication of SGA and IGA is important to prevent buttock claudication. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016; 25: 240–245.)
In our varicose vein center, on a trial basis, among the patients with asymptomatic calf deep vein thrombosis (CDVT) we carefully selected the patients for varicose vein surgery using the requirements as follows; 1) the patients had varicose veins with incompetent saphenous veins, 2) sequential examination including DUS confirmed stability and clinical insignificance of asymptomatic CDVT, 3) the patients do not have any risk factors for DVT such as a coagulation profile disorder (antithrombin deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, or antiphospholipid syndrome) or malignancies, 4) surgery is possible under local anesthesia alone, and 5) the patients can understand the concept of asymptomatic CDVT and undergo the surgery on their own will and informed consent. The patients who fulfilled these conditions underwent the varicose vein surgery. Twenty-eight patients with 30 limbs with varicose veins had asymptomatic CDVT, found by preoperative duplex ultrasonography (DUS). Among CDVT, 91% of CDVT existed in the soleal veins. After the diagnosis of the asymptomatic CDVT, serial DUS was performed and showed no changes in the status of the thrombus. Then varicose vein surgery (high ligation of the saphenous junctions either with or without stripping of the saphenous veins) was performed. After the surgery, the CDVT was re-evaluated by DUS. In 27 limbs, CDVT did not show any changes in the status of the thrombus, and in 3 limbs the CDVT was partially resolved. These data suggest that, at least, as far as the patients fulfilled these conditions, varicose vein surgery did not worsen the asymptomatic CDVT. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2016; 27: 405–412.)
Background: The incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism has been considered rare in Japan. However, its occurrence has been increasing because of westernized lifestyle and diet, increased diagnostic technique, and recognition of this disease.
Method: Between January 2003 and September 2014, 179 patients were treated for pulmonary thromboembolism. We classified these patients into 3 groups; Massive (n=35), Sub-massive (n=29) and Nonmassive (n=115) and retrospectively reviewed the treatment options and the outcome.
Results: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) was applied for patients with hemodynamic instability and IVC filter was inserted if there was proximal DVT. In non-massive group (n=115), 95.7% of the patient underwent anticoagulant therapy and 47.0% of the patients received IVC filter. In submassive group (n=29), 48.3% of the patient received thrombolytic therapy and 93.1% of the patient underwent IVC filter insertion. Surgical pulmonary embolectomy was performed in 3 patients who had high risk of thrombolytic therapy in submassive group. There was no death in this group. In massive group, 4 patients who had cardiogenic shock died in acute phase. PCPS was applied in 5 patients, pulmonary embolectomy was performed in 13 patients, thrombolytic therapy was performed in 4 patients and 13 patients underwent anticoagulant therapy alone. There were 7 deaths (20.0%) in this group.
Conclusions: In submassive group, treatment should be decided depending on the bleeding risk. In massive group, pulmonary embolectomy was effective. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2016; 27: 53–59.)
Objective: Compartment syndrome (CS) is serious complication following revascularization of acute limb ischemia (ALI). However, predictive factors associated with CS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify these predictive factors.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients who presented with non-traumatic ALI between November 2013 and October 2015 were enrolled and monitored for CS in this prospective cohort study. Predictive factors were compared between the CS and non-CS groups.
Results: There were 5 patients in the CS group and 17 patients in the non-CS group. Four predictive factors were associated with CS: (1) inadequate backflow (80% and 12% in the CS and non-CS groups, respectively; P=.001); (2) serum creatine kinase (CK) level (20,683 U/L and 911 U/L in the CS and non-CS groups, respectively; P<.001); (3) positive fluid balance after admission (4,324 mL and 1,223 mL in the CS and non-CS groups, respectively; P<.001); and (4) Rutherford category IIB (100% and 18% in the CS and non-CS groups, respectively; P=.0002).
Conclusion: Inadequate backflow, high serum CK level, positive fluid balance, and advanced-stage ALI were associated with CS. This information may be useful in identification of high-risk patients for CS prevention and in early detection of CS following the revascularization procedure.
Objective: The use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for post-surgical cardiothoracic, orthopedic, plastic, and obstetric and gynecologic procedures has been described. However, there are no data regarding its use for lower limb bypass incisions. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of NPWT in preventing surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with lower limb arterial bypass incisions.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively used data of 42 patients who underwent lower limb arterial bypass with reversed great saphenous vein between March 2014 and June 2016 and compared conventional wound therapy and NPWT with regard to preventing SSI.
Results: Twenty-eight (67%) patients underwent conventional wound therapy and 14 (33%) underwent NPWT. There were no statistical differences regarding patient characteristics and mean SSI risk scores between the two patient groups (13.7% for conventional wound therapy vs. 13.4% for NPWT; P=0.831). In the conventional group, nine instances of SSI (32%) and three (11%) of these required subsequent surgical wound debridement, whereas in the NPWT group, there was no SSI incidence (P=0.019). Secondary outcomes such as the length of hospital stay, 30-day readmission rate, and need for secondary vascular procedures were not statistically different between the two groups.
Conclusion: The use of NPWT for lower limb arterial bypass incisions is superior to that of conventional wound therapy because it may prevent SSIs.
Background: This study aimed to present cases with cryopreserved human allografts (CHAs) for vascular reconstruction in both aortic and peripheral infected prosthetic grafts.
Materials and Methods: This is a single center, observational descriptive study with retrospective analysis. In all cases, the infected prosthetic graft material was completely removed. At discharge, patients were administered anticoagulants. Follow-up examinations included clinical visits, echo-color-Doppler ultrasounds, or computed tomography angiography within 30 days and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, and then twice per year.
Results: We treated 21 patients (90% men, n=19) with the mean age of 71±12 years and mean interval between the initial operation and replacement with CHA of 30 months [range, 1–216; interquartile range (IQR), 2–36]. In-hospital mortality was 14% (n=3); no CHA-related complication led to death. Limb salvage was 100%. No patient was lost at the median follow-up of 14 months (range, 2–61; IQR, 6–39). No rupture, aneurysmal degeneration, or re-infection occurred. Estimated freedom from CHA-related adverse events (95% confidence interval, 43–63) was 95% at 3 years.
Conclusion: In our experience, CHAs are a viable option for prosthetic graft infections and provide satisfactory clinical results and favorable stability because of a very low rate of CHA-related adverse events during follow-up.
Objective: Endovenous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a relatively new technique for treating great saphenous varicose veins, is less invasive compared with stripping surgery. This study examined the mid-term safety and effectiveness of RFA for varicose veins.
Materials and Methods: We enrolled 104 patients (147 limbs) who underwent RFA for varicose veins of the lower extremities (females, 67; 64.4%). The mean age was 68.9±9.2 years (39–85 years). In 121 limbs (82.3%), there were great saphenous veins. All patients were observed as outpatients for 12 months after the procedure. RFA was performed using ClosureFast™ catheters with tumescent local anesthesia.
Results: There was 99.4% occlusion of the treated veins, and partial recanalization was observed in one limb. Endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) was identified in five limbs (3.4%). All EHITs were class 1 according to the Kabnick classification, and they disappeared within 1 month of the intervention without antithrombotic therapy. No other major complications were observed. Mean venous clinical severity scores improved from 5.31 at the baseline to 1.10, 0.39, 0.14, and 0.06 at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively.
Conclusion: RFA is a safe and effective strategy for varicose veins of the lower extremities.
Objective: To share our experience regarding the management of arterial injuries in children with pulseless hand secondary to supracondylar fracture of the humerus (SFH).
Patients and Methods: All consecutive children with pulseless hands after SFH who were being treated in the vascular surgery units of the Combined Military Hospital, Lahore and Peshawar between September 2011 and September 2016 were included. The type of fracture, mode and pattern of injury, time from injury to definitive treatment, operative treatment, and complications were recorded.
Results: There were 55 [82% (n=45) male and 18% (n=10) female] patients with pulseless hand and SFH [Gartland type III: 18% (n=10) and IV: 82% (n=45)]. The hand was cold in 38.1% (n=21) patients and warm in 61.8% (n=34). The most common mode of injury was accidental fall [45% (n=25)], and the mean time from injury to presentation was 4±2.5 hours (mean±standard deviation). Overall, 71% (n=39) patients underwent vascular reconstruction: autologous interposition venous grafting was performed in 49% (n=19) and segmental resection and primary anastomosis in 25% (n=10) of the cases. There were no cases with amputation, fasciotomy, re-exploration, or long-term ischemic sequel.
Conclusion: Immediate vascular exploration is the treatment of choice for cold, pulseless hand. A similar approach should be adopted for warm, pulseless hand if there is no immediate return of pulse.
Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of edoxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) secondary to active malignancy.
Materials and Methods: We enrolled 48 patients with newly diagnosed VTE secondary to active malignancy that was treated with oral edoxaban for 1 year between September 2014 and August 2015. We retrospectively examined the presence or absence of recurrent symptomatic VTE, VTE-related mortality, and bleeding events.
Results: No recurrent symptomatic VTE or VTE-related deaths were recorded, enabling efficient assessment. Treatment safety was determined based on the reports of bleeding. Bleeding was reported in two patients, with serious bleeding in one of them.
Conclusion: Edoxaban is safe and effective for the treatment of VTE secondary to active malignancy.
Objective: Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is an uncommon disease, the natural course of which is still not well known. The objective of this study is to define factors that affect the growth rate of RAAs.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 32 aneurysms in 26 patients at our institute between January 2010 and March 2016. Basal demographics, comorbidities, reason for diagnosis, and details of the aneurysms and interventions were recorded. The chronological changes in the diameter of the RAA using multiplanar reconstructions of computed tomography images were measured and analyzed.
Results: The baseline mean diameter was 20.1±8.4 mm (range: 9.9–41). The mean follow-up period was 3.13±2.1 y (range: 0.5–7.1). The median growth rate was 0.35 mm/y (interquartile range: 0.05, 0.62). The growth rate was slower when the initial diameter was <20 mm than when it was >20 mm (p=0.036). Also, whole-completed calcification was a significant factor for slower growth (p=0.016). We performed ex-vivo surgery in two cases and coil packing with stenting in one. No ruptures occurred during the study period.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that cases with an RAA diameter <20 mm do not require intervention. The interval period can be longer in whole-completed calcification types.
Objective: We have previously shown that pretreatment with the free radical scavenger edaravone (Radicut®, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Co., Japan) mitigated skeletal muscle damage due to ischemia reperfusion. In this study, we sought to validate its use in an experimental model of myonephropathic-metabolic syndrome (MNMS).
Methods: Either edaravone (3.0 mg/kg; edaravone group; n=4) or saline (saline group; n=6) was intraperitoneally injected into male Lewis rats (508±31 g). Normal kidneys were harvested as control (n=3). MNMS was induced by bilaterally clamping the common femoral arteries for 5 h and declamping 5 h later. Kidney damage was evaluated by quantifying Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS)-positive area (glycogen storage) and esterase-positive cells (neutrophil infiltration).
Results: The PAS-positive area in the saline group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (36.9±2.6 vs. 66.9±1.2%, P<0.01); the PAS-positive area in the edaravone group remained comparable to that in the normal group (52.9±0.9%, P<0.01). Esterase-positive cells in the saline group were significantly higher than in normal kidneys (62.4±5.6 vs. 17.5±2.4 cells/mm2, P<0.01), while they were significantly reduced in the edaravone group (32.8±5.7 cells/mm2, P<0.01).
Conclusion: Edaravone pretreatment mitigates MNMS-induced kidney damage by reducing both glycogen depletion and neutrophil infiltration.
Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening condition that occurs due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Clinical manifestations are variable, and the time interval from the initial trauma to diagnosis is variable. A prompt diagnosis and an aggressive management approach are required to avoid catastrophic complications. Possible treatment options are open surgical repair, endovascular repair, pseudoanerysmal sac thrombosis induction through direct thrombin injection, and coil embolization. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man affected by an infrarenal abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting with abdominal and lumbar pain for 3 days, who was successfully treated with an endograft.
In treating non-stenting zones (NSZs), such as the common femoral artery (CFA) and popliteal artery (PA), the best method to treat severely calcified NSZ lesions remains controversial. Here we describe a new method for the treatment of severely calcified PA and CFA lesions using the Crosser® system (CS). After the first wire passed the lesion, the CS was passed through the other wire to create new cracks and lumens (NCAL) in both cases. After creating NCAL around the lumen of the first wire, a large scoring balloon was inflated to crush the severe calcification like a “GLASS CUT” with a glass knife.
A 43-year-old asymptomatic male patient with a positive stress myocardial perfusion imaging result was admitted to our institution. Although no organic lesion was detected by 64-row coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), invasive coronary angiography revealed a unique anatomy with a long lesion in the middle of the left anterior descending artery. Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) demonstrated the details of the recanalized occlusion with coronary dissection. OFDI provides in vivo coronary images with high spatial resolution and better three-dimensional reconstructions and supports invasive coronary angiography to elucidate infinitesimal and complicated intraluminal morphology that might be missed by CCTA alone.
We report three consecutive patients with limb ischemia, where symptoms appeared several days to weeks prior to presentation. In all cases, initial over-the-wire thrombectomy failed due to adherence of the thrombus to the arterial wall. We adopted a new approach of stretching the whole obstructed segment by a series of ballooning using a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) catheter. A subsequent thrombectomy was successful in all three cases. No further intervention, such as stenting or bypass surgery, was required. The adhering thrombus was dissected by stretching the arterial wall at the site of obstruction.
Symptomatic penetration of the retroperitoneal structures by inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a rare clinical entity. Vast majority of these patients require laparotomy and open retrieval of the filter. We report a case of a filter penetrating into the duodenum within two months of implantation resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient was successfully managed with percutaneous retrieval of the filter, blood transfusion and serial abdominal examination thus avoiding laparotomy.
Repeated restenotic events are common in superficial femoral artery and as of late, Viabahn stent grafts have been FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration) approved. Viabahn have been particularly attractive given that they provided a physical barrier for the development of neointimal hyperplasia. This particular feature however, also underscores one of the main limitations of the therapy; providing a physical barrier of collateral circulation and predisposing to acute limb ischemia. Viabahn endograft thrombosis is characterized by stent edge stenosis and endograft thrombosis. Here we present 2 cases of Viabahn graft thrombosis successfully treated with the Jetstream atherectomy device, a rotational cutter with aspiration capacity.
We present the case of a bilateral external iliac artery (EIA) dissection in a 44-year-old male athlete. The patient was referred to our department for right lower abdominal pain without claudication during single squatting. His athletic history included participation in approximately five athletic events per year. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral EIA dissection and right renal infarction. Following medical treatment for his hypertension and considering his medical history, a bilateral EIA replacement with 8-mm Dacron straight grafts was performed on the 24th day after hospital admission. Postoperative contrast-enhanced CT revealed good bilateral graft patency and perfusion following surgery.