Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether to perform endovascular intervention or bypass surgery as a treatment option for critical limb ischemia (CLI) with lesions in the popliteal artery or below.Subjects and Methods: A total of 150 patients (164 limbs) with CLI underwent endovascular intervention or bypass surgery for lesions in the popliteal artery or below at our department between May 1995 and June 2011. Therapeutic outcomes were examined by surgical technique. An indication for endovascular intervention was established with the combination of (1) poor general condition, and (2) a stenotic or occlusive lesion ≤5 cm.Results: The bypass group (group B) comprised 119 patients (99 males, 20 females) with 131 affected limbs at 46 to 89 years of age (mean: 70 years). The endovascular intervention group (group E) comprised 31 patients (25 males, 6 females) with 33 affected limbs at 47 to 89 years of age (mean: 72 years). There was no significant difference in patient demography between the two groups. Regarding preoperative complications, hypertension was observed in 54% and 61% of the subjects in groups B and E, respectively, diabetes in 36% and 55%, renal dysfunction in 29% and 58%, ischemic heart disease in 27% and 32%, and cerebrovascular disorder in 18% and 23%; renal dysfunction accounted for a significantly higher percentage in group E. As for early postoperative complications, subjects in group B experienced wound infections (6 patients), hemorrhage (2), thrombosis (2), pneumonia (1), and another complication (1), and those in group E experienced wound infections (1) and another complication (1). The hospital mortality rate was 0.8% (1 patient) for group B and 0% for group E. The 3-year cumulative primary patency rate was 72% for group B and 54% for group E; the rate was significantly higher for group B. The 3-year secondary patency rate was 82% for group B and 60% for group E. The 3-year limb salvage rate was 86% for group B and 82% for group E; there was no significant difference between the two groups. The 5-year survival rate was 57% for group B and 42% for group E; the survival rate was significantly lower for group E.Conclusion: For the study population of CLI patients with lesions in the popliteal artery or below, the patency rate was higher for the bypass group than for the endovascular intervention group, whereas there was no difference in the limb salvage rate. Based on the findings in prognosis for survival, the indication for endovascular intervention at our department is believed to be appropriate. (*English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2013; 22: 715-718)
Objective: Isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is very rare among of the visceral artery dissection and its treatment is not established. In this paper we present our experiences and consider the treatment of isolated SMA dissection.Methods: A retrospective review of our cases from 2005 was performed. Clinical symptoms, radiologic findings and results were evaluated. There were 14 cases of visceral artery dissection, in which all cases were with SMA dissection. There were 12 males and 2 females with a mean age of 57 years (range 41–78 years).Results: We categorized SMA dissection into the six types according to the Sakamoto’s and Zerbib’s classification. One patient with type VI underwent emergent endovascular surgery with stent. One patient with type VI received thrombectomy and intimectomy with open surgery. One patient with type II underwent aneurysmectomy due to enlarged dissected SMA 3 months later from onset. The other eleven patients were managed conservatively. At follow-up, the diameter of SMA did not enlarged and the length of the dissection significantly decreased to 20.7 ± 15.7 mm from 38.0 ± 15.1 mm at onset (p <0.01). After treatment, imaging indicated the following changes in classification: type I, one patient; type II, 4 patients; type IV, 4 patients; complete remodeling, one patient, all without any event during the follow-up period of 5–82 months.Conclusion: Most patients with isolated visceral artery dissection occurred in superior mesenteric artery and can be treated conservatively; however, endovascular or surgical procedures including laparotomy are indicated when there is suspicion of severe mesenteric ischemia. Because the dissection configuration will change, long term follow-up is necessary. (*English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2013; 22: 695-701)
Objective: Major side effects after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) are pain and bruising. The aim of this study was to compare outcome and side effects after EVLA for primary varicose veins with 1470 nm diode laser using bare-tip orradial fiber.Methods: From October 2007 to December 2010, 385 patients (453 limbs) with primary varicose veins treated with 1470 nm laser were studied. Bare-tip fiber was used in 215 patients (242 limbs) (BF group) and radial fiber (ELVeSTMRadial, Biolitec AG, Germany) was used in 177 patients (211 limbs) (RF group). This study is a retrospective study and radial fiber was started for use from November 2008. Laser energy was administered at 6–12 W of power in the BF group and 10 W of power in the RF group with constant pullback of laser fiber under tumescent local anesthesia. The patients were assessed by clinical examination and venous duplex ultrasonography at 24–48 h, one week, one month, 4 months and one year follow-up postoperatively.Results: Mean operating time, length of treated vein and linear endovenous laser energy of all cases were 42.6 min, 36.2 cm and 83.4 J/cm, respectively. Major complications such as deep vein thrombosis and skin burns were not noted. Bruising (1.9% vs. 19.4%) and pain (0.9% vs. 7.4%) were significantly lower in the RF group. Cumulative occlusion rates by Kaplan-Meier method were 100% at 32 months in the RF group and 99.5% at 4 years in the BF group.Conclusion: EVLA using 1470 nm laser with the radial fiber minimized adverse effects compared with bare-tip laser fiber. (*English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2013; 22: 615-621)
Objective: The relationship between specific distributions of isolated soleal vein thrombosis (SVT ) and risk factors was investigated. Subjects and Methods: The subjects included 93 patients with SVT diagnosed with ultrasonography. Results: In the acute thrombus distribution, the thrombi of central veins were significantly more frequent than the thrombi of medial veins in the unilateral SVT. The thrombi of central veins were not more significantly frequent than the thrombi of medial veins in the bilateral SVT. Conclusion: The risk factors of bilateral SVT are considered to be different from that of the unilateral SVT. (*English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 159-166)
Objective: To our knowledge, no previous study has described the measurement of the tensile strength of the human aortic adventitia. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the tension and length of the aortic adventitia resected from the aortic wall of patients with acute aortic dissection.Methods: We obtained rectangular specimens from the aortic adventitia that was resected in patients with acute aortic dissection during surgery. The specimens were placed on a tension meter (Digital Force Gauge FGS-10, SHIMPO, Kyoto, Japan) within 15 min after resection and stretched until they were pulled apart, and the tension and length were recorded.Results: We obtained 18 specimens during surgery from 11 cases of acute aortic dissection. When the specimen was being pulled apart, the mean tension recorded was 10.2 ± 4.9 N/cm specimen width, whereas the mean elongated length recorded was 4.2 ± 1.1 mm/cm specimen length.Discussion: We determined that the aortic adventitia is elastic and expandable up to 140% of its original length. This indicates that dilation of the aorta to >4.2 cm in diameter may result in a rupture if the original aortic diameter prior to dissection was 3 cm. (*English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 77-81)
The spur occasionally seen in a left common iliac vein was investigated by anatomical and histological examination of cadavers so the occurrence mechanism could be discussed. Spurs were found in six cases of the 28 cadavers (21.4%) and they were classified into few different kinds of composition of endosporia, tunica media and adventitia. It is considered that there may be different formation mechanisms and stages even in cases of similar anatomical finding. (*English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 43-47)
The subjective symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremity often include malaise, numbness, coldness, pain, and pruritus of the lower extremity, and relieving these complaints is important in managing the quality of life of patients. We have examined the clinical efficacy of keishibukuryogan, a Kampo prescription for improving oketsu (impaired microcirculation, congestion), on non-specific complaints associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Keishibukuryogan was administered to 30 patients with non-specific complaints associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity for 12 weeks, resulting in improvements in the scores of subjective symptoms, severity of varicose veins, and oketsu as well as an increase in skin perfusion pressure. And especially the effect was remarkable in female. In addition, oketsu was shown to be involved in the subjective symptoms associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity, demonstrating efficacy of keishibukuryogan. No adverse drug reaction or abnormal laboratory result was observed in patients receiving keishibukuryogan, and the rate of general improvement and usefulness was 73.3%. It was suggested that keishibukuryogan was useful to improve the symptoms of patients with non-specific complaints associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity especially in female patients. (*English translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2013; 24: 303-310)
Purpose: To identify the computed tomography (CT) findings of persistent type II endoleak from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) which indicate the need for preoperative IMA embolization.Materials and Methods: Included were 120 patients (96 males, 49–93 years old, mean: 77.7) who underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) between June 2007 and October 2010. The relationship between persistent type II endoleak and CT findings of IMA orifice was examined.Results: CT showed no type II endoleak from IMA in 106 patients (89%; Group N), and transient type II endoleak from IMA in 10 patients (8.3%; Group T). CT showed persistent type II endoleak from IMA in 4 patients (3.3%; Group P) and three of them underwent reintervention. Univariate Cox-Mantel test analysis indicated that stenosis (p = 0.0003) and thrombus (p = 0.043) in IMA orifice were significant factors for persistent type II endoleak. The ratios of patients with proximal IMA more than 2.5 mm diameter in Groups N, Y, and P were 26/106 (24%), 5/10 (50%) and 4/4 (100%), respectively.Conclusion: Indicators for embolization of IMA prior to EVAR for the prevention of type II endoleak appear to be: (1) more than 2.5 mm in diameter and (2) no stenosis due to calcification or mural thrombus in IMA orifice.
Background: We previously reported effectiveness of coil embolization (CE) to aortic branched vessels before endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) because of significant shrinkage of aneurysmal sac. In this study, we investigated EVAR cases to clarify influential factors of aneurysmal shrinkage and enlargement.Methods: 148 consecutive cases before the introduction of CE were retrospectively reviewed based on the presence of PT2EL (persistent type 2 endoleak) and change in sac diameter after EVAR by multivariate analysis.Results: (A) PT2EL risk factors were patent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and thinner mural thrombus inside aneurysmal sac. (B) Sac enlargement risk factors were antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and female gender. (C) Sac shrinkage predictive factors were the absences of thoracic aortic aneurysm, antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and coronary artery disease.Conclusion: CE to IMA was considered to be effective because patent IMA and antiplatelet intake were significant risk factors for sac enlargement. So, more meticulous therapeutic strategy, including treatment priority (AAA first or CAD first) and choice of treatment (EVAR vs. AAA) based on anatomical features of AAA was required to improve late outcomes.
Objective: The choice of cannulation site for the treatment of acute Stanford type A aortic dissection is much debated. We believe that central cannulation is quick to perform, easy to use, and safe to manage acute type A aortic dissection.Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated 26 cases of acute aortic dissection performed using two different central cannulation methods between April 2011 and March 2012. Direct ascending aortic cannulation was performed using the Seldinger technique in 20 patients, and transapical ascending aortic cannulation was performed in six patients in whom puncture was difficult.Results: Patients were 21–86 years old (mean age, 67 years). The surgical techniques used to treat aortic dissection were hemiarch repair in 21 patients and total arch replacement in 5 patients. The mean length of surgery was 393 min. One death (3.8%) was attributed to intestinal ischemia.Conclusion: During surgery for acute aortic dissection, central cannulation using either transapical or direct puncture can be performed quickly and safely, and satisfactory short-term outcomes can be obtained. Because acute aortic dissection can present with various conditions, there is no single perfect surgical or cannulation method; therefore, the choice of surgical procedure should be individualized for each patient.
Objective: To report our experience in the management of CBTs and review the literature.Materials and Methods: 56 CBTs were operated upon over a period of 25 years. Surgical intervention was planned according to the Shamblin classification. Thirty-nine of the tumors were in males (69.64%), and 17 of the tumors were in females (30.36%). The average age was 42 (ages ranging between 32 and 47). Twenty-two tumors were diagnosed and treated with Shamblin type I, twenty-eight with type II and eight tumors with type III. All patients were unilateral except two had bilateral carotid tumors. Thirty-five lumps were de novo (group A), while 21 lumps were treated after a prior trial of removal (group B).Results: The incidence of carotid reconstruction was lower among group A (1/35) compared to group B (9/21). Complications were less in group A than group B (23% vs. 30%). There were 4 cases with suspected malignancy and no recurrences during the follow-up period.Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of major vascular reconstruction in cases not properly investigated or diagnosed and in cases with prior attempts of removal in Primary Hospitals. Proper diagnosis of suspicious lumps is mandatory. Resection of CBTs by surgeons with experience in vascular reconstruction is recommended. Vascular reconstructions have to be performed safely without serious complications. Also today, prior attempts of removal are not so common, with preoperative evaluation using the latest diagnostic tools. Cranial nerves injury (especially the Hypoglossal Nv) continues to be the most common complication.
Objectives: We present our experience of endovascular surgery for traumatic aortic injury and the results of our procedures.Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to December 2013, we performed endovascular repairs of traumatic thoracic aortic injury on 5 male patients 16–75 years old (mean, 50.8), two of whom were young. Three of the patients had multiple organ injuries. The mean interval time to the operation is 22.0 hours (range, 10–36). All patients underwent endovascular repair with heparinization. The isthmus regions were seen in three cases and all of them were needed left subclavian artery (LSA) coverage. In the two young patients, the deployed stent graft was 22 mm (22.2% oversizing for diameter of aorta) and 26 mm (36.8% oversizing), respectively.Results: The procedures were successful in all patients, with no early mortality, paraplegia or stroke. During 3–63 months (mean, 30.8) follow-up period, no one experienced stent graft-related complications. One patient with LSA coverage experienced arm ischemia but the symptom improved with time.Conclusion: Endovascular surgery for traumatic thoracic aortic injury can be performed safely with low mortality or morbidity even in young small aorta. Accumulation of clinical experience and evaluation of long-term outcomes are necessary.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between arterial inflow rate (AIR) and venous filling index (VFI) in limbs with or without varicose veins, assessed by air plethysmography (APG).Materials and Methods: A total of 142 patients (142 limbs) visiting our clinic with leg complaints, but without arterial and venous disease, were defined as the normal group (NG), and 65 patients (65 limbs) with leg varices were defined as the varicose vein group (VG). Both groups underwent duplex ultrasonography and APG to identify venous reflux and measure hemodynamic parameters, respectively. Examinations were performed at the first visit in the NG and before and one month after treatment in the VG.Results: A strong correlation between resting AIR and VFI was found in the NG (r = 0.72) and postoperative VG (r = 0.71). Twenty-two and three limbs in the NG and postoperative VG, respectively, had a VFI over 2.0 mL/s because of the high AIR. In the VG, AIR tended to decrease after treatment (P >0.01).Conclusions: High leg AIR lead to high VFI measured by APG. AIR and VFI should be measured at the same session to assess venous hemodynamic changes after varicose vein treatment when residual venous reflux cannot be diagnosed with duplex ultrasonography.
Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature.
The acronym FAVA (Fibro-Adipose Vascular Anomaly) has been recently given to a distinct vascular entity that is characterized by fibrofatty infiltration of muscle, unusual phlebectasia with pain, and contracture of the affected extremity. We report a new case of FAVA in a 10-year-old girl with pain in her right lower leg and equinus contracture. As in our case, FAVA typically presents in young females with calf involvement and limited ankle dorsiflexion with local pain. FAVA should be considered as a differential diagnosis when evaluating vascular anomalies in the lower extremities.
A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO.
We describe a rare case of traumatic disruption of saphenous vein graft bypassed to the dorsalis pedis artery. The vein graft was disrupted at the level of ankle joint by blunt trauma and symptoms of acute foot ischemia were recognized. The injured vein graft was reconstructed with cephalic vein graft interposition. He has been free from any events of foot ischemia at 10 months follow-up with patent vein graft to the dorsalis pedis artery.
Middle colic artery aneurysms are rare and most have been reported with rupture or symptom. We report the successful elective treatment of a middle colic artery aneurysm without symptom, which is very rare. It failed to perform transcatheter arterial embolization for anatomical reasons, and, thus, the patient, a 77-year-old man, underwent surgical resection in spite of a history of laparotomy. Although a common cause of middle colic artery aneurysms is segmental arterial mediolysis, the present pathological findings indicated that fragmented or degenerated elastic fibers may also play an important role like aortic aneurysms.
We describe a successfully treated case of acute type B aortic dissection complicated with lower extremity, visceral, and spinal cord malperfusion. To restore perfusion to both lower extremities, we performed an emergency right axillo-bifemoral bypass. Furthermore, we performed total arch replacement, including primary entry closure, because of delayed visceral organ ischemia. Unexpectedly, delayed paraplegia occurred after hospital discharge; however, the patient recovered without any neurologic sequelae after early introduction of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Because another episode of organ malperfusion in the long term cannot be anticipated, and even though the previous organ malperfusion episode was treated successfully, close observation is mandatory for detecting clinical manifestations in combination with the availability of imaging modalities.
Infected internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombus is rare and is sometimes seen in association with jugular vein catheterization and rarely with suppurative upper aero-digestive tract infection. We describe a very rare association of left Infected Internal jugular vein thrombus with an infected arterio-venous fistula in the left elbow region created for dialysis access in a renal failure patient. The infected arterio-venous fistula was addressed surgically by excision and a reverse saphenous vein graft was placed between proximal and distal brachial artery just above it’s bifurcation. The patient was put on i.v Clindamycin and Metronidazole for six weeks. Patient recovered uneventfully.
A 50-year-old man presented with an acute type A aortic dissection with an aberrant right subclavian artery. Emergent total arch replacement with an elephant trunk was performed. Intraoperatively, the origin of the aberrant right subclavian artery could not be resected because it was located too far from the distal arch. After two weeks, the patient became aware of dysphagia. Postoperative computed tomography showed the esophagus was compressed anteriorly by the aneurismal origin of this aberrant vessel (Kommerell diverticulum) with a patent false lumen. Additional replacement of the descending aorta via left thoracotomy was performed immediately to exclude a Kommerell diverticulum.
Hybrid TEVAR was performed in 2 patients with right aortic arch accompanied by Kommerell’s diverticulum and aortic aneurysm. In patient 1, total debranch + TEVAR was performed with 1-stage median sternotomy. In patient 2, total arch replacement and insertion of a peripheral elephant trunk were performed first, followed by TEVAR. No endoleaks or aortic events were observed in either case during the observation period, and both patients had good postoperative clinical courses. We report our experience with two such cases that were treated with two different methods of hybrid TEVAR, and discuss the merits and demerits of each treatment method.
Subclavian Artery Dissection (SAD) is a rare condition, generally due to arterial catheterization, blunt trauma or connective tissue disease. Spontaneous or minimally traumatic cases have also been reported. Clinical manifestations are usually chest and/or back pain, pulse loss and paresthesia, whereas nausea, dizziness and vomiting are present in case of involvement of the vertebral artery. We report an unusual case of a young woman presenting isolated left SAD after traffic accident, minimally symptomatic, and treated with medical therapy alone. A conservative management and a closed follow-up appear to be a safe approach in patients affected by uncomplicated SAD without other comorbidities.
We performed a late open reintervention for aneurysmal sac enlargement due to persistent type 2 endoleak (PT2EL) after EVAR for 8 of 286 patients. Surgical techniques are as follows: (1) The entire aneurysmal body was exposed. (2) All the aortic branched vessels were ligated. (3) The aneurysmal sac was opened followed by the performance of complete hemostasis. (4) An equine pericardium was wrapped and sutured to the aneurysmal sac to for reinforcement. This method is considered to be one of the feasible options for the treatment of aneurysmal sac re-enlargement after EVAR.
The descending aortic coarctation is often difficult to anatomically reconstruct. We report two cases of ascending aorta to abdominal aorta bypass without laparotomy or thoracotomy. This approach enabled us to avoid anastomosis close to the inflammatory lesion and left thoracotomy causing bleeding from the collateral vessels, and to allow concomitant cardiac procedures to be performed. The graft contact with the intestines can be preventable by the retroperitoneal approach. This technique is useful for the selective patients.