Whether endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relative contraindication in patients with preoperative renal dysfunction (Pre-RD), remains controversial because the contrast medium may induce nephrotoxicity. In this study 1658 patients were treated at ten Japanese medical centers between January 2005 and March 2011 (Open surgery (OS) vs. EVAR: n = 1270 vs. n = 388). They were retrospectively analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis (MLRA) with pre- and intra-operative variables was applied to all patients. The endpoints induced onset of new dialysis and postoperative renal dysfunction (Post-RD), were defined as a 50% decrease or more from the preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level.Results: Early mortality, Post-RD, incidence of new dialysis in all patients were 1.6% (OS: EVAR = 1.9%:0.8%), 6% (OS: EVAR = 8%:2.3%) and 1.4% (OS: EVAR = 1.5%:1.0%) respectively. MLRA identified operation time, clamp of renal artery as risk factors for Post-RD, and operation time and Pre-eGFR level as risk factors for new dialysis.Conclusion: Although Post-RD was more frequently observed in the OS group, MLRA showed that the choice of OS or EVAR was not a risk factor for Post-RD and new dialysis. It was strongly suggested that using contrast medium during EVAR is not a contraindication to AAA repair in patients with Pre-RD. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2014; 54: 13–18.)
From 2001 to 2012, arterial reconstruction was performed in 306 out of 497 limbs (62%) with critical limb ischemia. The reasons for non-vascularization include high operative risk (36%), extended necrosis or infection (20%), and technical issues (15%). Cumulative patency and limb salvage in collagen disease were significantly worse compared to arteriosclerosis obliterans. Cumulative limb salvage, amputation free survival (AFS), and major adverse limb event and perioperative death (MALE + POD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were significantly worse compared to patients without ESRD, but not significant with regards to graft patency. Our finding suggests that aggressive arterial reconstruction provides satisfactory long-term results in critical limb ischemia so long as case selection for revascularization is properly made. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2014; 54: 5–11.)
Chronic wounds due to diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often occur in the pedal region peripheral to the ankle. To predict wound healing potential of limb ulcers, skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) have recently become popular as the parameters that reflect skin microcirculation. On the other hand, ultrasonography for the macrocirculatory vessels has already prevailed widely as the standard vascular investigation. The skin microcirculation peripheral to the ankle probably depends on the macrocirculatory blood flow at the ankle level. Thus, this study aims to estimate whether the blood flow of the anterior tibial artery (ATA) and the posterior tibial artery, at the ankle level, reflect the values of SPP and TcPO2 on the foot. The protocol enrolled 88 patients (122 limbs) with foot ulcers due to DM and/or PAD. The statistical analysis revealed that the sum of blood flow of the ATA and the PTA (posterior tibial artery), at the ankle level, significantly correlated with SPP on the foot. The findings support the availability of conventional ultrasonographic investigation to estimate microcirculation of the foot crucial for wound healing. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2014; 54: 45–50.)
Objective: To estimate the frequency of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among non-surgical inpatients, and to evaluate the D-dimer assay as a screening tool for DVT.Methods: Subjects were non-surgical inpatients aged 20 years or older who had been bedridden for at least 24 hours and had moderate-to-high risk factors for DVT. We assessed the presence of DVT by venous ultrasonography. Patients who received a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) before admission, who had symptoms or findings of VTE at admission, or who had surgery or trauma within the past 3 months before admission were excluded.Results: DVT was confirmed in 96 of 525 patients (18.3%). In a logistic regression analysis, longer duration of hospitalization, higher D-dimer value, and history of cancer surgery were significantly associated with the occurrence of DVT. The D-dimer assay showed high sensitivity (96.1%) and high negative predictive value (97.6%).Conclusion: Non-surgical inpatients with a long-term hospitalization or history of cancer surgery have a risk for DVT, and need to be considered for added DVT preventive measures as recommended in the prevention guidelines. In addition, the D-dimer assay is beneficial for the screening of DVT in medical practice.
Purposes: Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an increasingly used method of repairing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the treatment of persistent type II endoleak is still a controversial issue. Five cases are reported here in which we performed open surgical repair of growing aneurysm due to persistent type II endoleak.Method: Totally 128 EVAR cases were retrospectively reviewed, which were operated in our hospital from April 2008 to October 2013. These cases were followed by periodical contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) after EVAR. When persistent type II endoleak caused aneurysm sac growth, we performed surgical repair method for the first line treatment. In the operation, we incised the aneurysm sac by abdominal small median incision approach and sutured lumber arteries from inside of aneurysm sac and tied inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) in addition to aneurysmorrhaphy. Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed in a week after open repair for the confirmation of complete treatment.Results: Five of 128 cases (3.9%) were needed to be surgically repaired because of aneurysm sac growth (>5 mm), including two ruptured AAA cases. All patients recovered uneventfully. Contrast-enhanced CT scanning performed a week after these operations showed no endoleak and intact stent grafts and reduction of the aneurysm size.Conclusion: We believe open surgical repair method of persistent type II endoleak with aneurysm expansion is secure method, and can be one of the preferable options for this life threatening complication after EVAR.
Objectives: We reviewed our series of patients who underwent open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and constructed a prediction model for postoperative delirium.Methods: 397 patients who underwent open AAA repair at our institution between April 2005 and June 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative delirium was diagnosed from the patients’ medical records according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Mental alterations resulting from postoperative cerebrovascular events or preexisting mental disorders were excluded. Parameters with significant differences on univariate analysis were subjected to a logistic regression analysis.Results: There were 46 patients (11.5%) diagnosed with postoperative delirium. The following parameters were significant in the univariate analysis: age, history of stroke, hyperlipidemia, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent vital capacity (%VC), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. A logistic regression analysis revealed that an age ≥70 years (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.342 [1.437–7.774]), blood loss ≥1517 mL (2.707 [1.359–5.391]), and the absence of hyperlipidemia (2.154 [1.060–4.374]) were significant risk factors.Conclusions: Older patients with substantial intraoperative blood loss require highly vigilant postoperative care. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between cholesterol and delirium.
Objective: Endovascular treatment (EVT) using a popliteal approach is effective for superficial femoral artery (SFA) chronic total occlusion (CTO); however, its effectiveness, safety, and consequent complications are unclear.Materials and Methods: We studied 324 consecutive EVTs (in 187 patients) performed at three centers between April 2008 and March 2013, and selected all EVTs that included SFA CTO regions. A total of 91 EVTs (in 65 patients) were included and divided into two groups; “with popliteal approach” (WPA) and “without popliteal approach” (WOPA).Results: Despite higher rates of hypertension (WPA, 88.9% vs. WOPA, 69.1%; p = 0.04) and CTO length >200 mm (55.6% vs. 28.3%, respectively; p <0.01), the primary success rate was better in the WPA group (97.2% vs. 78.2%, respectively; p <0.01); however, both total complication rate and major complication rate were not significantly different.We compared popliteal puncture using a sheath and using a microcatheter alone. There were no significant differences between sheath and microcatheter use in terms of primary success rates (95.5% vs. 100%, respectively; p = 0.61) and puncture site complications (22.7% vs. 14.2%, respectively; p = 0.53).Conclusion: A popliteal approach improved the primary success rate of EVT for SFA CTO.
Objective: To clarify the characteristics of ankle-brachial index (ABI), toe-brachial index (TBI), and pulse volume recording (PVR) of the ankle with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy young adults.Material and Methods: We analyzed ABI, TBI, baPWV, and PVR in the ankle of healthy adults aged 20 to 25 years (median, 20 years) using an automatic oscillometric device between 2002 and 2013. The ABI, baPWV, and PVR in 1282 legs of 641 subjects (301 men and 340 women) and the TBI in 474 toes of 237 subjects (117 men and 120 women) were evaluated.Results: The measured values showed no bilateral differences. ABI and baPWV were higher in men than in women, but TBI was similar in both sexes. ABI <1.0 was observed in 18.1% of the legs in men and in 25.6% in women. TBI <0.7 was observed in 16.2% of the toes in men and 19.1% in women. For ankle PVR, the % mean arterial pressure was higher in women than in men. The upstroke time was <180 ms in most subjects.Conclusions: For young people, ABI <1.0 or TBI <0.7 may not always indicate vascular abnormalities. When evaluating circulatory indexes, age and sex should be considered.
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of venous filling index on standing (VFIst) and a new index named pure regurgitation index (PRI), obtained by air plethysmography, for detecting venous reflux.Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-one healthy subjects (161 limbs) and 180 varicose vein patients (180 limbs) were investigated. All subjects underwent duplex ultrasonography for verifying venous reflux and air plethysmography to obtain hemodynamic parameters such as VFIst, VFI in the supine position (VFIsu), and the maximum arterial inflow rate. To evaluate the accuracy of VFIst and PRI (= (VFIst – VFIsu)/body mass index), receiver operating characteristics curves were created.Results: The optimal cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve, obtained from analyzing the receiver operating characteristics curves, of VFIst vs. PRI were 2.058 mL/s vs. 0.059 mL · m2/s · kg, 93.3% vs. 90.3%, 88.8% vs. 91.3%, and 0.954 vs. 0.964, respectively.Conclusions: This study indicates that while both VFIst and PRI are highly accurate indicators of venous reflux, PRI, which is not affected by the arterial inflow rate and body mass index, is slightly superior to VFIst, especially in subjects with greater body mass index.
Complications of renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) can be life threatening and include the spontaneous rupture which may lead to severe retroperitoneal hemorrhage, loss of the kidney, or death. As the incidence and diagnosis of RAAs is expected to rise, it is becoming increasingly important to enhance our awareness and knowledge of this rare clinical entity. Here, we present the case of a hilar right RAA and the surgical approach for primary repair during the postpartum period. Additionally, we discuss current pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated symptoms as well as current treatment modalities for RAAs.
We encountered an informative case of infected aortic arch aneurysm. The proximal descending aorta, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery were severely involved in an abscess; thus, typical in situ reconstruction of the arch was considered impossible. Therefore, to secure more distal branches appropriate for anastomosis, a modified extra-anatomic arch repair was performed through additional incisions. The patient developed renal and respiratory failure and died of septicemia five and a half months after the operation. However, postoperative computed tomograms demonstrated that the abscess had disappeared.
We report an effectiveness of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the limb perfusion, which helps to continuously measure the tissue oxygen index of bilateral legs in treating acute type A aortic dissection complicated with limb ischemia. A 62-year-old man underwent total arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection with limb ischemia. Intraoperative retrograde true lumen perfusion via bilateral femoral arteries during cardiopulmonary bypass improved ischemic condition of bilateral legs before the resection of primary intimal tear, and the use of near-infrared spectroscopy made it possible to assess additional revascularizations to the lower limbs were required or not.
An 88-year-old man with severe chest pain and syncope was admitted to our hospital. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed acute type B aortic dissection with rupture. Considering age and operative risk, we performed emergency thoracic aortic endovascular repair with two-debranching of the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries. To prevent type II endoleak, we used Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) II for left subclavian artery embolization. Postoperative contrast-enhanced CT showed no type II endoleak and rupture site exclusion. As postoperative persistent blood flow to the primary entry or rupture site causes re-rupture, AVP II was crucial in preventing type II endoleak.
We report a rare case of delayed intestinal ischemia after total arch replacement for type A acute aortic dissection. At the onset of acute aortic dissection, computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed celiac trunk occlusion and progressive dissection into the superior mesenteric artery without stenosis. However, following total arch replacement, visceral malperfusion was not detected by exploratory laparotomy. On postoperative day 12, the patient developed paralytic ileus without an elevated lactate level. CT angiography revealed new superior mesenteric artery stenosis by a thrombosed false lumen with persistent celiac trunk occlusion. Endovascular treatment including stent implantation resolved intestinal ischemia.
Blunt vascular trauma of the lower extremities brings about a high amputation rate, because other organ injuries disturb revascularization. We experienced a case of a superficial femoral artery occlusion caused by blunt trauma. The patient also had a femoral bone fracture and a large skin defect with deep muscular injuries of the thigh. We performed a femoropopliteal (FP) bypass using a saphenous vein which was routed through the contaminated wound. Postoperative vacuum-assisted closure therapy was used to prevent graft infection. Surgical bypasses using saphenous veins are approved treatments for arterial occlusions from blunt trauma if the grafts go through contaminated wounds.
Objective: Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare occupational disease. The risk group of HHS is patient whose dominate hand used as a hammer. Our study report unusually cases in Chiang Mai University Hospital.Result: 19 year-old basketball player had right ulnar artery aneurysm for two months. After operation, his symptom was relieved and returned to play basketball again. 65 year-old housekeeper had non-dominated hand ulnar artery aneurysm for two years. After operation she still had hand claudication due to poor run-off vessel.Conclusion: HHS is previously state in risk group. But from our report there was a risk in different occupation.
We describe a patient with successfully treated giant bilateral internal iliac artery aneurysms that were associated with acute renal failure secondary to bilateral hydronephrosis, lumbosacral plexopathy, and ileus. After hemodialysis for 1 month, the patient underwent graft replacement of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, including complete obliteration of the internal iliac artery branches, reconstruction of the inferior mesenteric artery, and ureterolysis. Weaning from hemodialysis was achieved and postoperative renal function improved. Although the patient had serious preoperative co-morbidities, emergency traditional open surgery should be the gold standard for securely releasing compression of the neighboring organs instead of endovascular treatment.
We report the case of a 62-year-old man who experienced a left axillary artery pseudoaneurysm that was secondary to nonunion of a 30-year-old left midshaft clavicle fracture. He initially underwent endovascular repair using a self-expanding nitinol stent graft, which was perforated at postoperative day 5. Therefore, we performed open repair with concomitant clavicle resection, and no complications were observed during an approximately 6-year follow-up. We recommend performing clavicle resection with vascular repair to prevent recurrence in similar cases.
Hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. We describe a case of a successful surgical treatment of a giant hepatic aneurysm without revascularization. A 63-year-old female was admitted to our department complaining of abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed a thrombosed hepatic artery aneurysm measuring 5.5 cm in diameter. A celiac angiography revealed an aberrant left hepatic artery and a right hepatic aneurysm. Liver blood flow and the right hepatic aneurysm were visualized via collateral pathway from the aberrant left hepatic artery. We performed an aneurysmorrhaphy without revascularization. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is doing well 3 months after surgery.