Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) and pseudoaneurysms (VAPA) can be life-threatening conditions with high incidence of rupture and hemorrhage. Greater availability and increased use of advanced imaging technology has led to the increased incidental detection of asymptomatic visceral aneurysms. In addition, increased percutaneous endovascular interventions have raised the incidence of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms. Due to this, both VAA and VAPA have become an increasingly frequent diagnosis confronting the vascular surgeon. Over the past decade, there has been steady increase in the utilization of minimally invasive, non-operative interventions, for vascular occlusive and aneurysmal disease. All VAA and VAPA can technically be fixed by endovascular techniques but that does not mean they should. These catheter-based techniques constitute an excellent approach in the elective setting, particularly in patients who are poor surgical candidates due to their comorbidities or who present a hostile abdomen. However, in the emergent setting it may carry a higher morbidity and mortality. We review the literature about open and endovascular approach for the treatment of VAA and VAPA both in the elective and emergent setting.
Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities, and such patients are associated with a high risk for the complications of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report 8 patients (34.8%) with DVT among 23 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the superficial femoral and common femoral veins. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases with D-dimer above 5 µg/ml. Concerning sudden death in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularities of an underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT in patients with SMID. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for smooth medical care of SMID and compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as noninvasive examination, is very helpful. (*English translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2012; 23: 17-24)
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the anatomical variations of the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) and the incidence of these variations.Materials and Methods: Between April 2005 and March 2010, 2552 limbs of 1563 patients with complaints of varicose veins underwent ultrasonography. Ultrasonography was used to identify the anatomical variations of the SFJ, especially the relationship to the femoral artery.Results: Variations were seen in six limbs (0.24%) at the SFJ. The most common anatomical variation was the great saphenous vein crossing posterior to the common femoral artery, which was present in three limbs.Conclusion: It is important to investigate the anomalies of the SFJ using preoperative duplex ultrasound, although the incidence of such anomalies is lower than that of the sapheno-popliteal junction. An anomaly of the SFJ always should be taken into consideration in order to minimize surgical complications of varicose veins. (*English translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2012; 23: 25-29)
Objective: The purpose of treatment for critical limb ischemia (CLI) is to prevent major amputation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience of treating CLI with free tissue transfer (FTT) and revascularization.Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, seven lower extremities in seven patients were treated with revascularization and free tissue transfer for CLI with tissue loss. All seven patients had tissue loss with a Rutherford category 6 status. Six patients underwent bypass surgery, and one patient underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for revascularization. All patients also underwent free tissue transfer using the latissimus dorsi muscle simultaneously and separately in two and five patients, respectively.Results: Five of the seven patients exhibited flap patency and survival. One patient obtained flap survival and limb salvage, although the flap graft was occluded after the patient achieved limb salvage. One patient developed partial flap necrosis requiring skin grafting and acquired limb salvage. The flap survival rate was 85%, and the limb salvage rate was 100%.Conclusion: FTT with arterial reconstruction for CLI achieves successful wound healing and limb salvage. Both bypass surgery and endovascular treatment are useful for maintaining the vascular supply.
Objective: Statins have been used widely to reduce dyslipidemia and recently have been reported to have pleiotropic effects such as plaque reduction and stabilization. This study retrospectively evaluated the regression of extensive thoracic atheromas (“shaggy aorta”) in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) before and after statin administration.Materials and Methods: CECT was used to examine thoracic aortas of 29 patients (statin group; n = 22, non-statin group; n = 7) with extensive atheromas from the ostium of the left subclavian artery to that of the more proximal renal artery. Extensive thoracic atheroma was defined by: (1) thickness >5 mm, (2) involved circumference of thoracic aorta >50%, and (3) length >30 mm. The areas of atheroma (cm2) were measured before and after administration of statins, and the atheroma reduction ratio (ARR) was evaluated.Results: The area of atheroma decreased after administration of statins, and the ARR was significant (P <0.01). The ARR increased with all cases in non-statin group. No complications associated with extensive atheroma were observed during the follow-up period.Conclusion: This pilot study indicates statins can reduce extensive thoracic atheromas and lower lipid concentrations.
Aims: To assess the characteristics of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured using a thermostatic heating probe and whether a thermostatic heating probe improves SPP detection.Methods: We studied 8 feet of healthy young subjects and 31 feet of elderly patients suspected to have severe limb ischemia. We measured SPP at the dorsum and plantar aspects of each foot using a plain laser Doppler probe and a thermostatic heating probe heated at 44°C. Results were expressed as median. Comparisons were analyzed using a non-parametric test.Results: In the healthy subjects, the SPP values at both the dorsum and the plantar aspect were not significantly different after heating. The thermostatic heating probe did not improve the SPP detection rates. In the patients with ischemic limb, the SPP values at both the dorsum and the plantar aspect significantly increased after heating (p <0.001 for both). The SPP detection rate at the dorsum remained at 96.8%; however, it was improved from 87.1% to 100% at the plantar aspect after heating.Conclusion: The thermostatic heating probe was shown to be useful for improving the detectability of SPP in the ischemic limbs. An SPP increase after heating may be considered as a parameter of limb ischemia.
Objectives: A true pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (PDAA) is a rare disease, and has some unique characteristics: a high rupture risk and a strong correlation with celiac trunk stenotic lesions (CTSL). We showed here that our treatment strategy for PDAA.Materials and Methods: Seven consecutive patients with PDAA at our institution from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 7 patients, five were male and two were female, with a mean age of 55 ± 9.7 years. Three aneurysms were diagnosed incidentally, and the remaining four ruptured. The locations of the aneurysm were the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (ASPDA) in 3 patients and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) in four. CTSL found 3 patients in the IPDA.Results: Of four ruptured patients, emergency catheter coil embolization was performed in three, and a simple ligation was performed in one. Three patients with non-ruptured aneurysms in the IPDA with a CTSL underwent direct aneurysm resection with arterial reconstruction. Six patients were successfully treated without complications or the appearance of new aneurysms during the follow-up period.Conclusion: The treatment strategy for PDAA should be selected by the site of the aneurysm, the patients’ condition, and the anatomical situation. A hybrid treatment could be considered a beneficial option for a CTSL.
We herein report the case of a splenic artery aneurysm with a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk that presented in a pregnant woman. Catheter embolization was not performed due to the wide neck of the aneurysm and its close location to the trunk indicates a high risk of mesenteric trunk thrombosis. We instead performed surgical resection of the aneurysm after successful delivery of the infant by Caesarian section. The splenic artery was reconstructed by side-to-end anastomosis with the common hepatic artery.
A 50-year-old male diagnosed with Behçet’s disease was referred to our department for stent graft treatment because of thoracic, abdominal, and right CIA aneurysms. He had a superior mesenteric artery aneurysm in 2005 that was treated with resection and bypass surgery through the radial artery. He later underwent four abdominal surgical procedures for conditions such as intestinal perforation and ileus. Stent graft treatment was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful; postoperative CT showed no apparent endoleak, while that performed at 3 years post-discharge showed that the aneurysms had decreased in size.
Retroaortic left renal vein is a malformation in which the left renal vein courses dorsal to the abdominal aorta. In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, an aorto-left renal vein fistula can form if the left renal vein is sandwiched between the aneurysm wall and lumbar vertebrae. The patient was an 84-year-old man with lower back pain. We performed a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), although renal dysfunction was noted. The CT showed a ruptured juxta-renal abdominal aortic with aorto-left renal vein fistula. This clinical condition can cause severe renal dysfunction, in spite of which an enhanced contrasted CT scan would be extremely informative preoperatively.
This study aimed to present the treatment of a case of delay presenting of traumatic aortocaval fistula (ACF) and its effect on hemodynamic problem. A 59-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with heart failure due to a 41-year-old traumatic ACF. ACF closure was performed by endovascular aortic stenting. His hospital course after procedure was complicated by severe bradycardia and torsades de pointes and excessive diuresis. We concluded the endovascular technique provided an attractive alternative to open surgical methods for repair of chronic ACF. However, in chronic cases, complications such as severe bradycardia (Nicoladoni-Branham sign) and excessive diuresis must be anticipated.
An 86-year-old woman presented with sudden back pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed thrombosed type A acute aortic dissection (AD) with a large ascending aorta. Due to the patient’s advanced age, medical therapy was performed. While an ulcer-like projection was recognized at the ascending aorta on follow-up CT, the patient was eventually discharged without surgery. Four-months follow-up CT showed complete resorption of the thrombus in the false lumen. While the patient was asymptomatic after discharge, 1 year later, CT revealed overt AD involving the ascending aorta. In order to prevent aortic events, we performed graft replacement of the ascending aorta.
Although vascular complications induced by acute aortic dissection are varied and common, gallbladder necrosis induced by acute aortic dissection is rare. We experienced the case of a 42-year-old woman who suffered from acute gallbladder necrosis that occurred the following day after the onset of acute type B aortic dissection. Contrasted computed tomography, which showed the thickened wall of the gallbladder and the pericholecystic fluid, as well as the occluded celiac artery, was an effective diagnostic procedure. We performed cholecystectomy and revascularization of the celiac artery using autologous saphenous vein. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged after 20 postoperative days.
Inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVCT) caused by liver injury is a rare and challenging condition. A 32-year-old man sustained a severe liver injury in a traffic accident. Emergent thromboembolic procedure for the affected hepatic arteries was performed for hemostasis, resulting in hemodynamic stabilization of the patient. One month later, however, CT showed liver congestion caused by IVCT from the suprahepatic IVC to the bilateral common iliac veins. As liver function deteriorated quickly despite heparin administration, surgical thrombectomy was performed under hypothermic circulatory arrest through sternotomy and laparotomy. After this operation, the liver was decongested and its function improved rapidly.
We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA.