Atherosclerosis-associated circulatory disturbance is one of the most important global issues. In patients with atherosclerosis, eccentric intimal thickening and lipid deposition progress over a long period (at least 20 to 30 years). On the other hand, in patients with atherosclerosis-associated circulatory disturbance represented by myocardial infarction, the direct cause of death is thrombus formation rather than marked stenosis; wall destruction may lead to a fatal outcome. In the future, atherosclerosis susceptibility, that is, intrinsic genes, should be investigated.
Treatment for limb lymphedema is challenging. The recent development of the super-microsurgical technique has made lymphaticovenular (LV) anastomosis an easier and more accurate surgical method for lymphedema. A summary of our experience as well as recent developments in surgical treatments for lymphedema are described.Methods and Results: Ultra-microstructural analysis demonstrated that dysfunction of the lymphatics in lymphedema was caused by the degeneration and incomplete regeneration of smooth muscle cells and valve insufficiency in the lymphatic channel. ICG and infrared ray examinations have been proposed as new means of assessment of lymphatic function. LV anastomosis is suitable for genital edema, arm edema with severe phlegmone with leg edema, and early stage leg edema. Although pre- and postoperative compression therapy is generally required for limb edema, some cases do not require postoperative compression due to remaining or regenerated smooth muscle cells. As new methods of treatment, the vascularized lymphadiposal flap has been effective for progressive cases with LV anastomosis. LV anastomosis is also effective for congenital chyloabdomen. (*English Translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2008; 48: 173-178.)
Aim: A review is given on the different tools of compression therapy and their mode of action.Methods: Interface pressure and stiffness of compression devices, alone or in combination can be measured in vivo. Hemodynamic effects have been demonstrated by measuring venous volume and flow velocity using MRI, Duplex and radioisotopes, venous reflux and venous pumping function using plethysmography and phlebodynamometry. Oedema reduction can be measured by limb volumetry.Results: Compression stockings exerting a pressure of ~20 mmHg on the distal leg are able to increase venous blood flow velocity in the supine position and to prevent leg swelling after prolonged sitting and standing. In the upright position, an interface pressure of more than 50 mmHg is needed for intermittent occlusion of incompetent veins and for a reduction of ambulatory venous hypertension during walking. Such high intermittent interface pressure peaks exerting a “massaging effect” may rather be achieved by short stretch multilayer bandages than by elastic stockings.Conclusion: Compression is a cornerstone in the management of venous and lymphatic insufficiency. However, this treatment modality is still underestimated and deserves better understanding and improved educational programs, both for patients and medical staff.
Current trends in vascular surgery in the USA are driven by increased demand for endovascular procedures. Traditionally-trained vascular surgeons have adapted to these trends by acquiring endovascular skills; vascular surgery fellowships were standardized to 2-years to incorporate endovascular training. However, the traditional “5 + 2” training paradigm appears to be less appealing to the current generation of surgical students, resulting in fellowship positions going unfilled, and potentially predicting a shortage of vascular surgeons. Recognition of this trend has led to the adoption of alternative training pathways, in particular the integrated “0 + 5” pathway, to supplement the traditional “5 + 2” independent pathway. The integrated pathway has several perceived advantages for vascular surgery trainees including early teaching of endovascular skills. However, it has challenges that include maintaining open operative skills and changing strategies to attract candidates from among the pool of medical students instead of the pool of general surgery residents. Simulators, both open and endovascular, are playing an increasingly important role in training programs as well as for outreach programs to medical students. Recruitment strategies for future generations of vascular surgeons in the USA may need to consider residents' lifestyle preferences as well as outreach to traditionally underrepresented groups such as women and minorities.
Objectives: Optimum treatment for acute aortic dissection (AAD) with a thrombosed false lumen (thrombosed AAD) remains controversial. We evaluated the outcome of thrombosed AAD according to treatment strategy.Materials and methods: We examined 280 patients with AAD, of which 30 had thrombosed AAD. We compared computed tomography findings, cardiac performance, and clinical course in 28 of these patients. Patients were divided into three groups for the comparison: Group E (emergency surgery), Group C (conservative therapy), and Group S (conservative therapy switched to emergency surgery).Results: In Group E (n = 13), one patient died and 12 survived. In Group C (n = 10), all patients were discharged, of which two died of cancer and two of the remaining eight survivors underwent subsequent elective surgery. In Group S (n = 5), one patient died and four survived following surgery.Conclusions: It was hard to predict re-dissection or rupture following conservative treatment for thrombosed AAD. Basically, we should perform emergency surgery following the diagnosis of thrombosed AAD, particularly in complicated cases such as those with pericardial effusion, tamponade, and large aorta. Conservative therapy has a very limited application in patients with the initial stages of thrombosed AAD.
Objectives: To evaluate the interface pressures (IP) obtained by double compression stockings. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers with legs fitting size S stockings wore single and double class I stockings, sizes S to 4L. We measured IPs with the patient wearing each stocking standing and supine. Results: IPs obtained wearing double S size stockings, standing and supine, were 1.7 times and 20 mmHg higher than those obtained by a single S size stocking (52.1 ± 4.7 and 46.4 ± 4.5 mmHg vs. 31.5 ± 3.3 and 27.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, respectively). Despite the decreasing IP with increased stocking sizes, all IPs obtained by double stockings, standing and supine, even with size 4L (43.2 ± 5.1 and 37.3 ± 5.5 mmHg respectively), were significantly higher than those obtained by a single S stocking. Conclusion: Significantly higher IPs were achieved standing and supine, by doubling stockings. We should rather be aware that double stockings in the supine position can result in excessively high IPs.
Although splenic artery aneurysm is the commonest visceral and third most common intra abdominal aneurysm after aorta and iliac artery, aneurysm of splenic artery along with aneurysm of splenic vein and arteriovenous fistula is a rare entity. Most of them are <3 cm in diameter. Giant true splenic artery aneurysms are rare and very few lesions >10 cm have been reported. We report a case of 11 cm × 8 cm giant splenic vein aneurysm with splenic arteriovenous fistula as the 1st case of giant splenic venous aneurysm with arteriovenous fistula managed by endovascular treatment.
A male patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and coronary artery disease was referred to our hospital. Coronary angiography showed multiple coronary lesions including the left main trunk. Computed tomography revealed a large AAA measuring 78 mm. To prevent aneurysmal rupture after coronary artery bypass grafting or cardiac complications after AAA repair, we performed simultaneous endovascular aneurysmal repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. The postoperative course was uneventful. Endovascular therapy and beating coronary artery bypass grafting is less invasive and may offer another promising option for the treatment of complicated case of AAA with severe coronary artery disease.
A 61-year-old woman with multiple splanchnic arterial aneurysms (SAAs) was transferred to our hospital in a state of shock. She underwent coil embolization under the diagnosis of ruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm. Follow-up computed tomography performed 2 weeks later showed rapid enlargement of a gastric artery aneurysm, and she underwent an additional embolization. Atherosclerotic, inflammatory or hereditary causes were excluded, and the patient was clinically diagnosed with segmental arterial mediolysis accompanied by multiple SAAs, one of which showed acute remodeling after endovascular treatment.
A 77-year-old woman with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was transferred to our hospital. Due to a severe comorbidity, endovascular aortic repair of the ruptured AAA was proposed. During the operation, although a Zenith® AAA endovascular graft was deployed, digital subtracted angiography revealed an enhancement of the endoleak, and the patient became hemodynamically unstable. Therefore, we decided to convert to graft replacement of the abdominal aorta through a median laparotomy. During the postoperative period, the patient suffered from ischemic colitis, which resolved with conservative therapy. She was discharged after 33 postoperative days.
This study presents a patient who died of acute renal failure (ARF) as a complication of scleroderma. The patient remained normotensive throughout the clinical course. Myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative. Autopsy revealed fibrin thrombi in the glomerular capillaries and afferent arterioles, mesangiolysis, and double contour of the glomerular basement membrane. Contrarily, “onionskin lesions” of renal interlobular arteries, the histological hallmark of scleroderma renal crisis, were not discovered. These findings suggested that thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) was the cause of ARF. Although the frequency is not high, close monitoring should be given to TMA in scleroderma because of possible mortality.
The patient was a 64-year-old man. He developed fever and lumbago 6 months after the EVAR. Because CT showed an abscess in the aortic aneurysm surrounding the stent graft, stent-graft infection was diagnosed, and treatment with intravenous antibiotics was initiated. However, the fever and inflammatory markers persisted; therefore, CT-guided drainage catheter placement was performed. After all the pus had been discharged, the fever subsided, and the inflammatory reaction was also suppressed. One year has elapsed since the treatment, and the patient continues to visit with no complaints. We report that stent-graft infection was relieved with antibiotics and drainage.
We describe a rare case of acute Stanford type A dissection with “intimo-intimal intussusception.” A 38-year-old male with sudden back pain and unconsciousness was admitted to the hospital. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed the presence of an intimal flap in the aortic root and the aortic arch, absence of an intimal flap in the ascending aorta along with dilatation and occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery. Surgical treatment consisted of ascending aorta replacement under circulatory arrest. During the operation, complete circumferential detachment of the intima at the level of the sinotubular junction with an inverted flap intruding into the brachiocephalic artery was visualized. The surgery was successful with an uneventful postoperative recovery.
We report on treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with common iliac artery aneurysm using an iliac branch device. We performed 2 cases because of a large common iliac artery aneurysm or a complication of an internal iliac artery aneurysm. Both cases had a good postoperative course and progressed without embolizing the iliac branch device during follow-up period. Though there is a drawback, it is not covered by the national insurance program in Japan and cannot be used in all applicable cases. However, use of a unilateral or bilateral iliac branch device allows us to maintain the bloodstream of the internal iliac artery, thus suggesting it to be effective in such cases.