Dental Materials Journal
Online ISSN : 1881-1361
Print ISSN : 0287-4547
ISSN-L : 0287-4547
Volume 37 , Issue 1
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Original Paper
  • Ahmed JAMLEH, Hideaki SUDA, Carlos G. ADORNO
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study evaluated the irrigation extrusion and smear layer (SL) removal of continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). Forty root canals were shaped, embedded in warm sterile saline agar colored with 1% acid red, and distributed into four groups; three groups had the final irrigation sequence of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA solutions performed by using syringe irrigation (SI), EndoVac (EV), and CUI, respectively. Group 4 had the canals ultrasonically irrigated with saline (CUIS). Irrigant extrusion was verified by a color change of the agar. The SL was evaluated under scanning electron microscope. Irrigant extrusion was observed in two and four teeth in the CUI and SI, respectively, whilst none had irrigant extruded in the EV. In term of SL, the CUI was comparable to EV at 1 and 3 mm but different to SI at 1 mm. Although CUI might clean the root canal system effectively, it was unable to avoid irrigant extrusion.

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  • Jian-Hong YU, Yu-Tzu WANG, Chun-Li LIN
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 6-14
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study developed a customized surgical template under mechanical consideration for molar intrusion. Two finite element (FE) models were analyzed for the primary stability under 100 gf traction forces with one mini-screw inserted at the buccal side in horizontal and another in palatal side with two optional positions at 60° (P60) or 15° (P15) angles with inclination toward the molar occlusal surface. The surgical template was generated using rapid prototyping (RP) printing for the clinical application based on improved primarily stability model. The surrounding bone strains for models P15 and P60 were far lower than the bone remodeling critical value. Model P60 presented much lower micro-motion in the screw/bone interface and the screw head displacement than those values in model P15. Using FE analysis for biomechanical evaluation and combining with CT image, image superimposed method and CAD technique can fabricate accuracy/security customized surgical template for mini-screws with better primary stability.

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  • Hüseyin HATIRLI, Bilal YASA, Elif YASA
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 15-23
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of the study was to evaluate microleakage and the penetration-depths of different fissure-sealant materials applied with/without enameloplasty after cyclic aging. One-hundred-sixty mandibular molars were divided into non-invasive and enameloplasty preparation groups and eight material subgroups, including: flowable composites (microhyrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled), three resin-based (unfilled, filled, and highly-filled), a giomer-based, and a glass-ionomer-based fissure sealant. Specimens were subjected to two-year cyclic chewing and brushing simulation. After 5% basic-fuchsin dye penetration, specimens were sectioned and scored under stereomicroscope. Kruskal-Wallis statistical data showed that preparation type significantly affected the penetration of all tested materials (p<0.05), but not significantly affected microleakage (p>0.05). Flowable composites showed the best and the glass-ionomer-based sealant showed the worst penetration and microleakage. Slight preparation of fissures is not important in microleakage. However, enameloplasty significantly enhanced the depth of penetration of the sealants. Flowable composites offer promising results at the fissure sealing.

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  • Hatice ÖZDEMİR, Alper ÖZDOĞAN
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 24-32
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: April 26, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of this study was to investigate that heat treatments with different numbers applied to superstructure porcelain whether effects microstructure and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC). Eighty disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from IPS e.max Press. Specimens were fired at heating values of porcelain in different numbers and divided four groups (n=5). Initial Vickers hardness were measured and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed. Different surface treatment were applied and then Vickers hardness, surface roughness and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis were performed. Data were analyzed with Varyans analysis and Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). Initial hardness among groups was no significant different (p>0.05), but hardness and surface roughness after surface treatments were significant different (p<0.05). Lithium disilicate (LD) peaks decrease depended on firing numbers. ESEM observations showed that firing number and surface treatments effect microstructure of LDC. Increasing firing numbers and surface treatments effect the microstructure of LDC.

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  • Pablo J. ATRIA, Camila S. SAMPAIO, Eduardo CÁCERES, Jessica FERNÁNDEZ, ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 33-39
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study evaluated the influence of different light-curing modes on the volumetric polymerization shrinkage and degree of conversion of a composite resin at different locations using micro-computed tomography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Specimens were divided into 4 groups based on the light-curing mode used (Bluephase 20i): 1 —High (1,200 mW/cm2); 2 —Low (650 mW/cm2); 3 —Soft-start (650–1,200 mW/cm2); and 4 —Turbo (2,000 mW/cm2). Degree of conversion was calculated by the measurement of the peak absorbance height of the uncured and cured materials at the specific wavenumbers, and was performed by FTIR 48 h after curing resin samples. Degree of conversion was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. No significant differences were observed independent of the region of the restoration investigated (p>0.05). Different curing modes did not influence volumetric shrinkage neither degree of conversion of class I composite resin restorations.

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  • Aysegul KURT, Subutay Han ALTINTAS, Mustafa Volkan KIZILTAS, Serife Ev ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 40-48
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 08, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of leached residual monomers from self-adhesive resin cements and evaluate their toxicity in-vitro. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens (5 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness) were prepared from each cement (RelyX U200, SpeedCEM, G-Cem) (n=20). Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva and the amount of released monomers [urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)] was identified. Then, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect on cells were evaluated using the defined amounts of released monomers from cements. The highest monomer release was detected in G-Cem (p<0.05). The highest cytotoxicity value was identified from SpeedCEM (p<0.01) and the highest genotoxicity values were calculated from RelyX U200 (p<0.05). Released UDMA and TEGDMA from self-adhesive resin cements induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect on cells.

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  • Isil CEKIC-NAGAS, Ferhan EGILMEZ, Gulfem ERGUN, Pekka Kalevi VALLITTU, ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 49-58
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To evaluate the influence of different materials on the load-bearing-capacity of inlay-retained fixed-dental-prosthesis (FDP). Ten types of FDPs were evaluated (n=7/group): Group PEEK: CAD-CAM polyetheretherketone (PEEK-TechnoMed), Group RC, made of discontinuous-fiber-composite (EverX Posterior); Group FRC1, made of discontinuous-fiber-composite (EverX Posterior) with two-bundles of continuous-unidirectional fiber-reinforced-composite (FRC) (Everstick C&B); Group FRC2, made of discontinuous-fiber-composite (EverX Posterior) with two-bundles of continuous-unidirectional-FRC (Everstick C&B) covered by two-pieces of short-unidirectional-FRC (Everstick C&B) placed perpendicular to the main-framework; Group FB, CAD-CAM fiber-block (Fibra-Composite Bio-C); Group PMMA, CAD-CAM polymethyl methacrylate block (Temp basic); Group RP, resin-paste; Group FRP1, made of resin-paste (G-Fix) with two-bundles of continuous-unidirectional-FRC (Everstick C&B); Group FRP2, made of resin-paste (G-Fix) two-bundles of continuous-unidirectional-FRC covered by two-pieces of short unidirectional-FRC placed perpendicular to the main-framework and Group exp-FRC, experimental CAD-CAM FRC. The bridges were statically-loaded until fracture. Fracture modes were visually examined. ANOVA revealed that significant differences were observed between FDP-materials (p<0.05). In addition, fiber addition to the framework significantly affected load-bearing-capacity (p<0.05).

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  • Gou KAMOCHI, Norihisa AKIBA, Hiroyuki TANIMOTO, Toshinari NAKAMURA, Sh ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 59-64
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to clarify how composition and water immersion of home reliners affect the attenuation of the transmitted load. To conduct a transmitted load measurement, we used three different home reliners (Tafugurippu Pink A, Liodent Pink, and Cushion Correct), which were combined acrylic resin disks. They were immersed in distilled water and then placed on a silicone quasi-mucosa (φ20×1.5 mm), which was set on a pressure sensor (φ8×0.35 mm), followed by the application of static load. Subsequently, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to clarify the composition of each home reliner. The attenuation of the transmitted load began 3 h after immersion. Moreover, both GPC and GC revealed a difference in composition among the three products. Further, the difference in the vinyl acetate molecular weight distribution and ethyl alcohol content affected the attenuation of the transmitted load of home reliners after water absorption.

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  • Takuya NAKATA, Yuichi KITASAKO, Alireza SADR, Syozi NAKASHIMA, Junji T ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 65-70
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 24, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to examine the anti-demineralization capacities of (a) tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and 950 ppm fluoride paste, (b) casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste and (c) 950 ppm fluoride solution using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Enamel blocks were cut from the bovine incisors and treated using one of the above-mentioned three materials or deionized water as control (n=10). All samples were subjected to a demineralization gel for 1 h followed by a remineralization solution for 23 h. This experimental cycle was repeated for 28 days. The specimens were imaged using OCT at baseline and at four stages and measured lesion depth using image analysis software (ImageJ). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that demineralization time, material and their interaction significantly affected the optical lesion depth (p<0.001). TTCP and DCPA and 950 ppm fluoride paste and 950 ppm fluoride solution showed significantly lower lesion progress compare to other groups (p<0.05).

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  • Takako YOSHIKAWA, Alireza SADR, Junji TAGAMI
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 71-77
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study evaluated the effects of the light curing methods and resin composite composition on composite polymerization contraction behavior and resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall using μCT-3D visualization analysis and dye penetration test. Cylindrical cavities were restored using Clearfil tri-S Bond ND Quick adhesive and filled with Clearfil AP-X or Clearfil Photo Bright composite. The composites were cured using the conventional or the slow-start curing method. The light-cured resin composite, which had increased contrast ratio during polymerization, improved adaptation to the cavity wall using the slow-start curing method. In the μCT-3D visualization method, the slow-start curing method reduced polymerization shrinkage volume of resin composite restoration to half of that produced by the conventional curing method in the cavity with adhesive for both composites. μCT-3D visualization method can be used to detect and analyze resin composite polymerization contraction behavior and shrinkage volume as 3D image in the cavity.

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  • Futoshi KOMINE, Shingo KAMIO, Hiroki TAKATA, Shogo YAGAWA, Serina TAGU ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 78-86
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study evaluated the effect of zirconia framework design on fracture load of implant-supported zirconia-based prostheses after thermal cycling and mechanical loading. Three different zirconia framework designs were investigated: uniform-thickness (UNI), anatomic (ANA), and supported anatomic (SUP) designs. Each framework was layered with feldspathic porcelain (ZAC group) or indirect composite material (ZIC group). The specimens then underwent fracture load testing after thermal cycling and cyclic loading. In the ZAC group, mean fracture load was significantly lower for UNI design specimens than for the other framework designs. In the ZIC group, there was no significant difference in mean fracture load between ANA design specimens and either UNI or SUP design specimens. To improve fracture resistance of implant-supported zirconia-based prostheses after artificial aging, uniformly thick layering material and appropriate lingual support with zirconia frameworks should be provided.

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  • Takatsugu YAMAMOTO, Masao HANABUSA, Saori KIMURA, Yasuko MOMOI, Tohru ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 87-94
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in polymerization stress and elastic modulus for light-cured bulk-fill resin composites following irradiation. Crack analysis was applied to obtain the stresses for 24 h after irradiation, which were calculated from the lengths of cracks in a glass mold bonded to the composites. The elastic modulus was repeatedly measured by nano-indentation tests performed over 24 h. The lengths of the cracks, the interfacial stress, and the elastic modulus were significantly affected by the material and time after irradiation (p<0.01). The stress and elastic modulus continued to increase for more than 6 and 1 h, respectively (p<0.05). Strong relationships (r>0.85) were revealed between the stress and elastic modulus. The bulk-fill resin composites generated smaller stresses than a flowable resin composite reported to generate relatively low stress. Post-irradiation polymerization during the first 1 h is a major determinant for the magnitude of stress.

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  • Qiting HUANG, Wei QIN, Sufyan GAROUSHI, Jingwei HE, Zhengmei LIN, Fang ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 95-103
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this study was to investigate several physicochemical properties of an experimental discontinuous S2-glass fiber-reinforced resin composite. The experimental composite was prepared by mixing 10 wt% of discontinuous S2-glass fibers with 27.5 wt% of resin matrix and 62.5 wt% of particulate fillers. Flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), fracture toughness (FT), work of fracture (WOF), double bond conversion (DC), Vickers hardness, volume shrinkage (VS) and fiber length distribution were determined. These were compared with two commercial resin composites. The experimental composite showed the highest FS, WOF and FT compared with two control composites. The DC of the experimental composite was comparable with controls. No significant difference was observed in VS between the three tested composites. The use of discontinuous glass fiber fillers with polymer matrix and particulate fillers yielded improved physical properties and substantial improvement was associated with the use of S2-glass fiber.

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  • Thwe Zin EI, Yasushi SHIMADA, Syozi NAKASHIMA, Maria Jacinta Rosario H ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 104-112
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study compared resin-based and glass ionomer sealants with regard to their fluoride-release behavior and anti-demineralization potential on adjacent unsealed enamel surfaces. Sealant cavities prepared on bovine enamel blocks were filled with fluoride-containing resin sealants [TeethmateF-1 (TF), ClinproTM (CP)], and glass ionomer sealant [Fuji VII (FVII)]. Specimens were then incubated in artificial saliva for 14 days to measure fluoride. Thereafter, demineralization was performed for 10 days, and the anti-demineralization efficacy was assessed by Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT), and cross-sectional nanohardness. All data were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA. FVII exhibited the highest fluoride release. SS-OCT and nanohardness findings indicated that anti-demineralization efficacy of TF was the greatest, whereas FVII was not significantly different from that of CP. Resin sealants released a lower amount of fluoride but exhibited anti-demineralization effects on the adjacent unsealed enamel surfaces that were comparable to that of a glass ionomer sealant.

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  • Akimasa TSUJIMOTO, Wayne W. BARKMEIER, Robert L. ERICKSON, Toshiki TAK ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 113-121
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etch mode was investigated. A two-step self-etch adhesive and two universal adhesives were used to bond to enamel and dentin in self-etch mode. Initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using the adhesive in self-etch mode were determined. Fatigue testing was used with 20 Hz frequency and cycling periods of 50,000, 100,000 and 1,000,000 cycles, or until failure occurred. For each of the cycling periods, there was no significant difference in shear fatigue strength across the cycling periods for the individual adhesives. Differences in shear fatigue strength were found between the adhesives within the cycling periods. Regardless of the adhesive used in self-etch mode for bonding to enamel or dentin, shear fatigue strength was not influenced by the number of cycles used for shear fatigue strength testing.

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  • Hongye YANG, Zhiyong CHEN, Huiyi YAN, Cui HUANG
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 122-129
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two calcium-containing desensitizing pastes on the bonding stability of an etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesive to dentine. After dentine hypersensitivity model established, dentine surfaces were assigned one of the following pretreatment: Group 1, no desensitizer; Group 2, CPP-ACP; and Group 3, Novamin. Specimens were then bonded with an E&R adhesive. Beams from each tooth were randomly divided into three subgroups and then subjected to microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test after 24 h; 12 months of water storage; or 15 runs of pH cycling. Failure modes, nanoleakage, and tubule-occluding effectiveness were analyzed. Results showed that CPP-ACP- or Novamin-pretreated specimens mainly preserved the bonding strength after 12 months of water storage, while effective tubule occlusion could be observed. The results suggested that the calcium-containing desensitizers were compatible pretreatment for bonding with E&R adhesives to obtain reliable long-term bonding strength and prevention of post-operative sensitivity.

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  • Lin DING, Peng ZHANG, Xin WANG, Jia HAO, Kazuhiro AOKI, Shinji KURODA, ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 130-138
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Improved osseointegration of dental implants is imperative in clinic. Effect of doxycycline on promoting bone formation after implant placement was expected due to its inhibitory properties on inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. To evaluate new bone formation on the hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implant surface, which was treated with doxycycline, in comparison with the untreated HA surface, half of the HA-coated implants were soaked in doxycycline solution (DOX group) whereas the other HA-coated implants were untreated (HA group). Eight weeks after extracting the maxillary first molars of 4-week-old male mice, the implants of both groups were placed at the extracted site. 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, the samples were evaluated radiologically and histomorphometrically. Bone-implant contact of DOX group was statistically higher than the one of HA group at 4 and 8 weeks. New bone area between the threads of the implants also statistically increased at 8 weeks in DOX group compared to HA group.

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  • Özgür IRMAK, Batu Can YAMAN, Ekim Onur ORHAN, Fusun OZER, Markus B. BL ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 139-145
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: October 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study investigated the effect of rubbing force magnitude on dentin bond strengths of multi-mode adhesives applied in self-etch mode. Seventy-two extracted human molar teeth were used. Two different universal adhesives Single Bond Universal (SB) and Clearfil Universal (CL) were applied onto dentin surfaces in three different modes: without rubbing (NR), rubbing with 40 gf (gram-force) (40) or 80 gf (80) load. Teeth were restored with a resin composite. Half of the specimens were subject to thermal aging (10,000 cycles). Microtensile bond strength was measured and data were statistically analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Baseline bond strength values for CL adhesive were improved by rubbing (40 and 80 gf) as compared to no rubbing (p<0.05). Rubbing did not significantly improve bond strength values for SB, regardless of aging (p>0.05). Rubbing improves bonding performance of some universal adhesives to dentin when applied in self-etch mode.

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  • Kazuhiro YOSHIDA, Gregory L. POLYZOIS, Mary J. FRANGOU, Hiroshi MURATA
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 146-151
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the dynamic mechanical properties of two acetal resins (different colored samples of the same resin), an autopolymerized reline resin, and a heat-polymerized denture base resin. Measurements were obtained in two conditions, the frequency- and temperature-dependent conditions, using a dynamic viscoelastometer. The acetal resins exhibited lower loss tangent values than the autopolymerized reline resin and heat-polymerized denture base resin. With respect to temperature dependence, all of the materials displayed stable viscoelastic properties in the temperature range found in the oral environment. The acetal resin had both a glass transition temperature and a melting point, whereas the autopolymerized reline resin and heat-polymerized denture base resin had only glass transition temperatures. The results of this study suggest that acetal resin displays elastic properties when compared with the other 2 materials.

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  • Satoshi YAMAGUCHI, Idris Mohamed MEHDAWI, Takahiko SAKAI, Tomohiro ABE ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 152-156
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of this study was to investigate a failure criterion to predict flexural strengths of composite resins (CR) by three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Models of flexural strength for test specimens of CR and rods comprising a three-point loading were designed. Calculation of Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratios of CR were conducted using a modified McGee-McCullough model. Using the experimental CR, flexural strengths were measured by three-point bending tests with crosshead speed 1.0 mm/min and compared with the values determined by in silico analysis. The flexural strengths of experimental CR calculated using the maximum principal strain significantly correlated with those obtained in silico amongst the four types of failure criteria applied. The in silico analytical model established in this study was found to be effective to predict the flexural strengths of CR incorporating various silica filler contents by maximum principal strain.

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  • Yu YANG, Jinsong GUO, Xuan ZHOU, Zhiqiang LIU, Chenbao WANG, Kaile WAN ...
    2018 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 157-166
    Published: January 26, 2018
    Released: January 30, 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Peri-implantitis is difficult to treat in clinical settings; this is not only because it is a site-specific infectious disease but also because it impedes osseointegration. In this study, a novel cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet (CAPAJ) was applied to study the treatment of peri-implantitis in vitro. CAPAJ treated the samples for 2, 4 and 6 min, respectively. To evaluate the titanium surface characteristics, the surface elemental composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [XPS]), roughness and hydrophilicity were evaluated in each group. Concurrently, the sterilization and osseointegration effect of CAPAJ were also examined. Results revealed that after CAPAJ modification, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces were significantly increased. Moreover, XPS results demonstrated that the C1s peak was reduced and N1s and O1s peaks were obviously improved. More importantly, CAPAJ showed favorable sterilization and bone formation effects. CAPAJ seemed a simpler and more efficient strategy for the peri-implantitis treatment.

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