Dental Materials Journal
Online ISSN : 1881-1361
Print ISSN : 0287-4547
ISSN-L : 0287-4547
Current issue
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
Review
  • Shizuka YAMADA, Kohei YAMAMOTO, Ayako NAKAZONO, Takashi MATSUURA, Atsu ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1295-1302
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 31, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Fish collagen peptides (FCP) derived from the skin, bones and scales are commercially used as a functional food or dietary supplement for hypertension and diabetes. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of FCP on the osteoblast function in contrast to evidence of the effects on wound healing, diabetes and bone regeneration, which have been obtained from animal studies. In this narrative review, we expound on the availability of FCP by basic research using osteoblasts. Low-concentration FCP upregulates the expression of osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and collagen modifying enzyme-related genes. Furthermore, it could accelerate matrix mineralization. FCP may have potential utility as a biomaterial to improve collagen quality and promote mineralization through the mitogen-activated protein kinase and Smad cascades. However, there are few clinical studies on bone regeneration in human subjects. It is desirable to be applied clinically through clinical study as soon as possible, based on the results from basic research.

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Original Paper
  • Shunsuke SHIBATA, Katsunori TORII, Junko TANAKA
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1303-1308
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: August 19, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this study was to clarify the influences of zirconia materials, one-half taper angle, and thickness of the secondary crown on the fracture strength of the secondary crown. For the primary and secondary crowns, Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/Al2O3 were used, respectively. Samples were prepared at one-half taper angles of 2° and 4°, and a secondary crown thickness of 0.5 and 1.0 mm (n=8). Regarding the fracture strength, the secondary crown was restored on the primary crown, all specimens were loaded until fracture using a universal testing machine. The load value added at the time of secondary crown fracture was regarded as fracture strength. Based on the analysis of variance, the fracture strength of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 was significantly higher than that of Y-TZP with regard to the material and that at 1.0-mm thickness was significantly higher than that at 0.5-mm thickness, but the taper angle had no influence.

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  • Yuki NAGAMATSU, Hiroshi NAGAMATSU, Hiroshi IKEDA, Hiroshi SHIMIZU
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1309-1319
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 30, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Electrolyzed waters, containing mainly hypochlorous acid, are used in dental practice because of their high microbicidal effect. For wider use, three neutral electrolyzed water-based gels, namely, HOCl-containing aqueous gels were prepared with a thickening/gelling agent in this study. We evaluated their microbicidal effects against four strains and storage stabilities indicated by available chlorine concentration. Immediately after preparation, all gels (70 ppm) could completely remove microbes by a 3-min treatment. The gel prepared with xanthan gum remarkably reduced its available chlorine concentration even under shaded and refrigerated storage conditions, failing to maintain its microbicidal effect following 1-day storage, whereas other gels, prepared with carboxyvinyl polymer or agar, maintained effective concentration (>20 ppm), with high microbicidal effects following 9-day and 21-day storage, respectively. Neutral electrolyzed water-based gels might be useful to remove oral microbes. Based on our results, agar is the most suitable thickening/gelling agent from the viewpoint of storage stability.

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  • Thaw Di CHO TOO, Masanao INOKOSHI, Kosuke NOZAKI, Makoto SHIMIZUBATA, ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1320-1328
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 30, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    There is limited research on the influence of different sintering temperatures on the properties of highly translucent zirconia ceramics. This study demonstrated the influence of different sintering temperatures on the translucency, crystallographic structure, biaxial flexural strength, microstructure, and low-temperature degradation (LTD) of three highly translucent zirconia grades, i.e., 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP), 4 mol% yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ), and 5 mol% yttria-PSZ (5Y-PSZ). The specimens were characterized using colorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Weibull analysis, and LTD tests (134°C; 20 h). The increase in the sintering temperature did not affect the translucency of 3Y-TZP, whereas it increased the translucencies of 4Y-PSZ and 5Y-PSZ. All the zirconia grades exhibited grain enlargement and unchanged biaxial flexural strengths with the increase in the sintering temperature. The degradation of 3Y-TZP and 4Y-PSZ at a sintering temperature of 1,600°C was faster than that at other sintering temperatures.

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  • Hiroshi ISHIGURE, Harumi KAWAKI, Kohei SHINTANI, Kyohei UENO, Masako M ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1329-1337
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Numerous studies have shown that the sustained release of ions from dental restorative materials have acid buffering capacity, prevents tooth enamel demineralization, and inhibits bacterial adhesion. Herein, the release behavior and bioresponsiveness of ions released from surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers were investigated in different types of media based on human dental pulp-derived stem cell (hDPSC) responses. The hDPSCs were cultured for 1–7 days in S-PRG eluates diluted with varying amounts of cell culture media. S-PRG released several types of ions, such as F, Sr2+, Na+, Al3+, BO33−, and SiO32−. The balance of eluted ions differed depending on the dilution and solvent, which in turn affected the cytotoxicity, cell morphology, cell proliferation, and alkane phosphatase activity of hDPSCs, among other properties. The results suggest that tailored S-PRG filler eluates could be designed and prepared for application in dental practice.

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  • Hiroshi CHUREI, Ruman Uddin CHOWDHURY, Yuriko YOSHIDA, Gen TANABE, Shi ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1338-1344
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of fiberglass reinforcement method in thermoplastic mouthguard materials to improve flexural properties and adhesive strength. Commonly used two types of commercial mouth guard materials (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer-based and polyolefin-based) were reinforced with glass fiber clothes by two-step hot press. Flexural strength and adhesive strength with each base material were examine via three-point bending test and delamination test, respectively. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer-based fiberglass-reinforced material has significantly greater adhesive strength with base material and improvement of flexural properties compared with polyolefin-based material. These results suggest that flexural properties of both conventional commercial mouthguard materials were improved when the glass-fiber-reinforced method was applied to reinforce mouthguard materials, and more, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer was more desirable for the base material.

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  • Chamari L. WIJETUNGA, Masayuki OTSUKI, Ahmed ABDOU, Minh N. LUONG, Fen ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1345-1351
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study evaluated the alterations of surface topography of the bovine enamel caused by different pH of in-office bleaching agents. 23% H2O2 with pH 5.5, 7.0 and 8.5 were applied on the bovine tooth specimens (n=10) and photo-irradiated for 10 min. The bleaching procedure was repeated three times and specimens were subjected to linear surface roughness (Ra) and Vickers microhardness test (VHN) at baseline and after three consecutive applications. The morphological alterations were observed before and after third bleaching application. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD. The pH of the bleaching agent significantly affects the Ra and VHN (p<0.05). Low pH yielded a significant increase in Ra and decrease in VHN. All the groups showed morphological alterations and profound effect was found in pH 5.5 group. It was concluded that the pH of the bleaching agent can affect Ra, VHN and surface morphology.

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  • Tatsuya IIJIMA, Hiroyasu KUROKAWA, Toshiki TAKAMIZAWA, Eizo HIROKANE, ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1352-1358
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: June 30, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of polishing paste containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler to prevent acidic attack on tooth enamel surfaces. Resin composites were filled in the standardized cavities and finished with silicon carbide paper. These specimens were divided into three groups: the unpolished “control” group, the “PRG” group polished with S-PRG paste, and the “DDP” group polished with diamond-containing polishing paste. Following polishing, the specimens were immersed in a lactic acid buffer solution for 28 days. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals were measured to obtain the signal intensity and width at 1/e2 at selected locations on the enamel surface adjacent to the restoration. Although signal intensity significantly increased in all groups, widths at 1/e2 did not change significantly in the PRG group. For both the control and DDP groups, signal intensity and width at 1/e2 increased and decreased over time, respectively.

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  • Jialin HAO, Natsuko MURAKAMI, Toshiki YAMAZAKI, Naohiko IWASAKI, Masar ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1359-1364
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    To evaluate the flexural and fatigue properties of a polyester disk material used in milled resin clasps of removable partial dentures, experimental polyester disk (mPE), injection-molded polyester (iPE), and polymethyl methacrylate disk (mPMMA) were examined by three-point bending tests and cyclic fatigue tests at 0.75 or 1.50 mm deflection. The mPE exhibited significantly higher flexural strength than the iPE (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the mPMMA displayed higher flexural modulus and strength than the polyesters. The mPE exhibited a significantly lower residual strain than the iPE at the cyclic 0.75 mm deflection (p<0.05); however, microcracks were observed in the mPE at the 1.50 mm deflection. The mPMMA showed a high residual strain at the 0.75 mm deflection and fractured within 1,000 cycles at the 1.5 mm deflection. The higher flexural strength and lower residual strain of the mPE compared with the iPE suggest the advantages of milled resin clasps within a limited deflection.

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  • Keita HATANO, Masanao INOKOSHI, Muneaki TAMURA, Motohiro UO, Makoto SH ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1365-1372
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 07, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The antimicrobial effects of denture adhesives containing novel surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers were assessed. We prepared denture adhesives containing S-PRG (particle sizes: 1 and 3 µm; quantities: 5, 7.5, and 10 wt%). We evaluated acid buffering capacity, ion release, and antimicrobial effects of denture adhesives with and without S-PRG. Significantly higher pH changes were observed in 1 µm S-PRG adhesives than in 3 µm S-PRG adhesives. Adhesives containing 7.5 and 10 wt% S-PRG exhibited significantly higher ion release than adhesives with 5 wt% S-PRG. The 1µm–10wt% S-PRG denture adhesive exhibited significantly lower colony-forming units on the denture adhesive contact surface than in the control group; additionally, it exhibited excellent acid buffering capacity, ion release properties, and antimicrobial effect against C. albicans, C. glabrata, S. mutans, and A. naeslundii. Longer contact periods resulted in significantly lower adhesion of Candida albicans to the denture base resin treated with denture adhesive.

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  • Duo XU, Noriko MUTOH, Hayato OHSHIMA, Nobuyuki TANI-ISHII
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1373-1379
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 27, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on pulp healing in the infected pulp by direct pulp capping (DPC). Thirty-six male ICR mice were divided into infected and uninfected groups. The pulp tissue was exposed to the oral flora for 24 h after pulp exposure in the infected group, or not exposed in the uninfected group, followed by sealing with MTA, calcium hydroxide cement (CH), or no DPC. Pulpal healing process was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for nestin and Ki67. The active cell proliferation occurred on 1 week in the both MTA and CH groups, followed by the differentiation of odontoblast-like cells on 2 weeks in the MTA group, whereas their differentiation were not facilitated in the CH group. MTA is suggested to be a useful material for DPC with the infected and uninfected pulp tissue.

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  • Tatjana SAVIC-STANKOVIC, Branislav KARADZIC, Vojislav KOMLENIC, Jovana ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1380-1387
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 22, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The aim of this study was to compare color changes, surface roughness and gloss of a microhybrid and nanohybrid composite whitened in a simulated in-office or at-home procedure using 40% hydrogen peroxide or 16% carbamide peroxide, respectively. CIELab coordinates were measured before, during and after treatment using VITA EasyShade V (VITA) and ∆E00 calculated. Surface roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester (SJ210; Mitutoyo). Gloss was measured using a gloss checker (IG-331; Horiba). At-home whitening resulted in ∆E00 of 1.23±0.49 (microhybrid) and 1.01±0.76 (nanohybrid). In-office exposure resulted in ∆E00 of 0.69±0.38 (microhybrid) and 0.72±0.50 (nanohybrid). There were no significant differences in ∆E00, surface roughness and gloss between whitening protocols (p>0.05). Color changes of a microhybrid and nanohybrid composite following simulated in-office or at-home whitening reached CIEDE2000 50:50% perceptibility but not acceptability threshold. Surface roughness and gloss of the microhybrid and nanohybrid composite were not affected by whitening.

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  • Hiroaki YANAGIDA, Naomi TANOUE, Kanako HODATE, Koichi MURAGUCHI, Asami ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1388-1393
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pretreatment conditioners and surface preparations on a composite resin adhesive for a gold alloy. Cast disk specimens were made and bonded with RelyX Unicem luting agent under six surface conditions: 1) polished with No.600 carbide paper, 2) air-abraded with alumina, 3) Alloy Primer metal conditioner was applied after alumina-abrasion, 4) Monobond Plus multipurpose conditioner was applied after alumina-abrasion, 5) M. L. Primer metal conditioner was applied after alumina-abrasion, and 6) Rocatec multipurpose silica-coating system was applied. The bond strengths were determined before and after thermocycling (50,000 cycles). The bond strengths of the alumina-abrasion group were significantly decreased after thermocycling. The Rocatec and M. L. Primer exhibited higher bond strengths than other treatments. The application of metal conditioners and multipurpose surface preparations was recommended for improved bonding between the evaluated adhesive resin and gold alloy.

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  • Ghassan RUMMANI, Kurumi IDE, Keiichi HOSAKA, Antonin TICHY, Ahmed ABDO ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1394-1402
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 22, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The effect of long-term water storage on the regional ultimate tensile strength (UTS), water sorption (Wsp) and water solubility (Wsl) of conventional and bulk-fill resin composites at various depths was investigated. Composite specimens light-cured from one side were sectioned into beams corresponding to different depths (1–5 mm) and stored in water for 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months or 1 year. UTS increased during the first week and then gradually decreased over time, especially in deeper regions. Bulk-fill composites initially exhibited similar UTS at all depths, whereas the UTS of conventional composites at 1 mm and 5 mm differed significantly at all time points. Wsp and Wsl increased with depth and storage time, markedly at 3–5 mm after 1 month for conventional composites and after 6 months for bulk-fill composites. The signs of degradation at depths beyond 3 mm suggested that even bulk-fill composites have suboptimal properties in layers more than 3 mm in thickness.

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  • Jianghai CHEN, Yutao JIAN, Shumin CHEN, Xiaodong WANG, Li DAO, Ke ZHAO
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1403-1409
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    To establish optimal elastic modulus distribution throughout the entire all-ceramic crown, aiming at improvement of the mechanical properties of the restoration as well as the adhesive interface, seven 3D models of mandibular first premolars of zirconia monolithic and bilayer crowns and lithium disilicate monolithic and bilayer crowns were constructed. The elastic modulus distribution of 8-layer crown A referred to human enamel, B was calculated by a genetic algorithm (GA) to minimize the principle stresses on the crown, and C minimized the shear stresses at the cementing lines. After applying a static load of 600 N, the maximum principle stresses were calculated and analyzed by finite element analysis (FEA). Group C were found to have the lowest peak shear stress at the cementing line and moderate peak tensile stress in the crown. Introduction of the modified elastic modulus distribution from human enamel into the entire all-ceramic crown reinforces the mechanical properties of the whole restoration as well as the adhesive interface against chipping and debonding.

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  • Aline Carvalho GIROTTO, Gabriel ABUNA, Cristian SANCHEZ-PUETATE, Mayra ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1410-1417
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 27, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Adhesive strategies were evaluated on the bond strength of bi-functional monomers bonded to endodontically-treated-dentin (ETD). Superficial dentin was removed on human molars. Teeth were immersed in 5 mL 2.5% NaOCl, followed by immersion in 5 mL 17% EDTA. Dentin surface impregnated with epoxy resin-based sealer was then divided four groups (n=10): Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP); Single Bond Universal (SBU); Optibond All-in-One (OPB); and Tetric-N-Bond Universal (TBU). After 24-h or 1-year-of-storage specimens were submitted to microtensile bond strength (µTBS) and failure classification. A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) evaluated the hybrid layer formation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test were performed (α=5%). The µTBS did not present statistical differences among adhesive strategies after 24-h. Significant differences were found after 1-year-of-storage. CLSM analysis showed water infiltration and consequently degradation of the hybrid layer after 1-year-of-storage. The use of SBU universal adhesive on the self-etching mode on ETD produced more stable bond over the 1-year-of-storage.

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  • Yuhan LIU, Tomoki KOHNO, Ririko TSUBOI, Pasiree THONGTHAI, Deng FAN, H ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1418-1427
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 31, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    BioUnion filler is a bioactive glass particle that releases Zn2+ in an acidic environment. In this study, the ion release, antibacterial, and physical properties of a glass ionomer cement (GIC) incorporating BioUnion filler (CA) were assessed in vitro. The concentration of Zn2+ released from CA into acetic acid was higher than that released into water and its minimum inhibitory concentrations against six oral bacterial species. Moreover, the concentration of Zn2+-release was maintained during all the seven times it was exposed to acetic acid. Compared to a conventional cement and resin composite, CA significantly inhibited the growth of oral bacteria and hindered their adhesion on the material surface. Thus, our study outcomes show that the release of Zn2+ from CA in the acidic environment does not affect its compressive strength.

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  • Yunting WANG, Yutaka YOSHIDA, Junichi KAMIIE, Yukari SHIWAKU, Osamu SU ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1428-1436
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: August 03, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    We performed proteomic analysis of rat serum proteins adsorbed on hydroxyapatite (HAp) and α-alumina (α-Al2O3) in order to identify proteins that specifically adsorb onto HAp and control cellular responses. Proteins with either or both molecular weight of 22–32 kDa and computed isoelectric point of 5.0–5.5 were preferentially adsorbed on HAp. In total, 182 proteins were adsorbed on both HAp and α-Al2O3, of which 14 were highly enriched on HAp, whereas 68 were adsorbed only on HAp. Therefore, 82 (14+68) proteins were further evaluated by bioinformatics and literature-based analyses. We predicted that hepatocyte growth factor and angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) are candidate proteins responsible for the osteoconductivity of HAp. Although ANGPTL3 promoted the attachment and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells, it did not promote their proliferation and differentiation. Our results suggest that specific adsorption of ANGPTL3 on HAp induced osteoconductivity by enhancing the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts.

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  • Fumi TANZAWA, Yu KATAOKA, Shugo HAGA, Fumika MIYANO, Hitoshi KIMURA, K ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1437-1444
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: July 31, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Numerous experimental studies have examined how much orthodontic force is needed to move teeth more smoothly; however, no reports have examined this clinically in individual, living subjects. We aimed to develop a method for quantifying the force exerted on individual teeth by an orthodontic wire to measure how loads placed on crowded teeth change dynamically over time. Accordingly, we fabricated a series of dental casts of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment (using optical impressions and a three-dimensional printer), fitted these models with nickel-titanium wire, and subjected them to bending load tests. During leveling, nickel-titanium wire is generally considered to exert a weak force due to its low elastic modulus, with a weak orthodontic force applied over a long period of time due to its superelasticity; however, we found that the actual energy exerted by nickel-titanium wire is also largely affected by other factors (e.g., amount of crowding).

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  • Ryosuke HAGINO, Atsushi MINE, Mariko MATSUMOTO, Masahiro YUMITATE, Shi ...
    Type: research-article
    2021 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 1445-1452
    Published: November 25, 2021
    Released: December 01, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: October 01, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The effects of silanization and resin primer application on CAD/CAM indirect resin composite block bonding were investigated. KATANA AVENCIA P blocks (Kuraray Noritake Dental) were treated with a silane coupling agent and/or a resin primer. The contact angles (CAs) of resin primer were observed before and after silanization. Panavia V5 (Kuraray Noritake Dental) was built after each treatment. Bond strengths were measured, and the interface was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The CA showed that silane treatment improved the wettability of the resin primer to the resin block. The combination treatment of the silane and resin primer showed significantly higher bond strength than no treatment, only in the silanization or resin primer group (p<0.001 each). EDS analysis showed that the resin primer penetrated both cement and block sides. The combination of the silane and resin primer improved bonding effectiveness between the resin block and resin cement.

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