The region between lowland Papua and the northern tip of the Australian continent presents a fascinating panorama of ecological, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In lowland Papua and on its associated small islands such as Saibai, Boigu and Parama, a combination of coastal forests and muddy shores dominates the scene, whereas the Torres Strait Islands of volcanic and limestone origin, together with raised coral islands and their associated reef systems present a range of island ecosystems scattered over a broad territory some 800km in extent. Coralline habitats extend southwards to the Cape York Peninsula and some parts of Arnhem Land. Coupled with those ecological diversities within a relatively small compass across the Torres Strait, the region has evoked important questions concerning the archaeological and historical dichotomy between Australian hunter-gatherers and Melanesian horticulturalists. This notion is also reflectd in terms of its complex linguistic, ethnic and political composition. In summarizing the presentday cultural diversity of the region, at least three major components emerge: hunter-gatherers in the Australian Northern Territory, Australian islanders and tribal Papuans. Historically, these groups have interacted in complex ways and this has resulted in an intricate intermingling of cultures and societies. Such acculturation processes operating over thousands of years make it difficult to isolate meaning-ful trends in terms of “core-periphery” components of the individual cultures. However, in order to assess cultural diversity within the region, it is useful to examine typical elements of the individual cultures and forms of ecological adaptation. In this paper the author will present an overview of the ecological and cultural diversity of the region from the perspective of maritime adaptation, focussing on a description of the techno-environmental complexes of traditional and contemporary fisheries and on the comparative aspects of the utilization of maritime resources.
This paper aims to clarify the residential segregation patterns of Chinese dialect groups in Singapore, and to examine the main factors contributing to the formation of residential segregation. In Singapore, population statistics data necessary to grasp residential segregation patterns of the Chinese dialect groups are not available. Therefore, the distribution of Chinese temples, associ-ations, and their members are considered important indexes reflecting residential segregation pat-terns of the Chinese dialect groups. By making distribution maps of the temples, associations and their members for each period, the author identifies the changing residential segregation patterns. Residential segregation patterns of Chinese dialect groups in the south bank district differed from those of the north bank district. The Singapore River separated the two districts. The three major dialect groups, the Hokkiens, Teochews and Cantonese, segregated themselves in three different areas along the south bank. On the other hand, minor dialect groups such as the Hainanese, Foochows, Henghuas, and so on, segregated themselves with the major dialect groups in mosaic fashion in the north bank district. Factors in the formation of the residential segregation of Chinese dialect groups are considered on the basis of an analysis of the residential segregation patterns involved. The chains of territorial relation involved in the process of Chinese immigration can be regarded as factors in promoting the residential segregation of Chinese dialect groups. Internal factors in the formation of the residential segregation can be found inside the Chinese dialect groups. They expected mutual help inside their society, and wanted to maintain their traditional culture including such aspects as language, religion and eating customs. As a result, they came to form their own urban villages. It was found that the Chinese dialect groups clearly had a tendency to specialize in and dominate certain trades. This promoted area concentration of a specific dialect group.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the distance parameter of spatial interaction model in the case of the greater Tokyo metropolitan area. The friction of distance is measured by the effect of the behavioral component in the distance parameter of the spatial interaction model. For attaining this purpose, the production-constrained entropy-maximizing model is applied to the automobile traffic flows in the study area. Obtained results are summarized as follows. Firstly, the distance parameter becomes lower in both the central and marginal parts and higher in these intermediate part in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area. Secondly, the configurational component which is empirically separated from the behavioral one in the distance parameter increases gradually and monotonously from the central part toward the periphery. Thirdly, the regional pattern of the remaining behavioral component shows something like the doughnut structure although this structure is less evident than that of the distance parameter. Fourthly, the structure of the greater Tokyo metropolitan area shows the concentric pattern in terms of both the behavioral component, i.e. the friction of distance, and its dominating factors including the activities of wholesale and retail sales, real estate, and agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
Consumers often visit several locations on a shopping trip. The effects of such multiple stops on the distance from home to a store is crucial for understanding spatial patterns of retail choice. The mean distance traveled to a store on a multistop trip is expected to be longer than that on a single stop trip. Data from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada have indicated that travel time from home to grocery store is affected by three aspects of a trip; the number of stops, the number of trip purposes, and the order of a shopping stop.
This paper aims at investigating some wind and moisture anomalies in August in the Sahelian drought of the early 1980's. The 1982-1984 drought is characterized by the excessive decrease in precipitation (in 1982-1983) and the southward retreat of the rainbelt (in 1984) along 0° meridian, and by the simultaneous southward retreat of the rainbelt (especially in 1984) along 35°E meridian. The mid- and upper-tropospheric easterlies at Niamey was greatly intensified in 1982 and this situation continued until 1984. The intensification of upper-tropospheric easterlies is not found in the previous (1968-1973) drought. In 1984, the surface dew point depression (T-Td) for Niamey rose rapidly to its maximum for the period 1964-1984, thus suggesting an abrupt decrease in the water vapor supply from the Golf of Guinea. The surface dew point depression (T-Td) for Khartoum also roser apidly in 1983 and reached its maximum in 1984 when rain-bearing equatorial westerlies were abnormally below 850 mb. At Khartoum, westerlies appeared abnormally at 300-500 mb and 700 mb in 1983 and 1984, respectively.
This paper analyzes the relationships between climatic factors and rice production in Sri Lanka. Firstly, it is shown that trend in rice production revealed a gradual increase with less interannual variability up to 1950 and thereafter it showed a steady increase with greater interannual variability. Secondly, climatic factors required for the rice cultivation are discussed, in which rainfall has been found as the foremost factor controlling the cultivation system. Thirdly, relationships between sown and harvested acreage, yield and rainfall are given based on correlation and regression analyses. Fourthly, the importance of irrigation is discussed emphasizing on the Dry Zone. At last, problems in the present rice cultivation are discussed and some suggestions are given to improve the rice culti-vation and to reduce the crop losses in drought-prone areas of the country from an agroclimatic perspective.
The effect of the higher energy costs of the 1970s on trends in urbanization and suburbanization is studied for the Nagoya metropolitan region. Comparisons are made with trends in the Chicago metropolitan area. By the end of the decade, energy costs had assumed a much larger share of the Japanese personal budget than at the beginning of the decade. Somewhat smaller cars were used, and the frequency of trips for non-essential travel was reduced. In the United States, down-sizing was the chief method of coping with higher energy costs. In Nagoya, the growth of industrial production slowed, but the rate of movement of industry to the suburbs was lower than in Chicago, where there was a mass movement of industry out of the central city, part of a trend that began long before the energy crisis of the 1970s. Unlike the U. S., Japan experienced increasing real incomes in the 1970s, making it possible for individuals to overcome the detrimental effect of higher energy costs. The main factors that appear to be responsible for continuing suburbanization in the Nagoya region, in spite of the higher energy costs, are the rapidly rising land values in Nagoya City and the willingness of large employers to subsidize employee commuting costs. If there is an increase in energy costs in the future in Japan, the size of the increase will have to be much greater than that in the 1970s to effect any clearly discernible change in land use patterns in the Nagoya metropolitan region.