Saccades are fast movements of the eyes which are suited to rapidly center images of objects in the visual field onto the fovea. The function of the saccade has been investigated by using the experimental manipulation of the visual stimuli. Two viewpoints were used to investigate that function. The first point is the presentation method of the visual target. Visually-guided, memory-guided and anti tasks have been used in the previous studies. The second point is the time relation between offset timing of central fixation point and onset timing of peripheral visual target. Overlap and gap tasks have been used in the previous studies. To support the function of the saccade, the brainstem, superior colliculus, cerebellum, and cerebrum are coordinately concerned it. At the first, in this review, the saccadic neural mechanism in the brain was summarized systematically. Next, this review was described shortening effect of the saccadic reaction time while maintaining the neck flexion position as follows: (1) physiological factor to induce the shortening of the reaction time, (2) the shortening effect on the reaction time formed through the training, and (3) age-related changes in the shortening of the reaction time.
Among students, food or nutrient intake depends on attributes such as eating behavior, household living arrangement, and sex. However, the effects of influencing factors associated with the progressing school years at universities, colleges, and vocational schools on nutrient intake among students have not been sufficiently clarified.
This study aimed to establish evidence for the factors that affect nutrient intake and to obtain useful information for programs held to help students maintain a healthy diet.
A 1-year longitudinal, prospective study was conducted on nutrient intake and eating behavior among university, college, and vocational school students (141 females; valid response = 135) throughout the main islands of Japan. This study was based on the results of a questionnaire survey that evaluated the diets of subjects using a 5-point scale (allocating 1–5 points for each response).
Vitamin and mineral (green and yellow vegetables) intake was significantly lower in the second year at universities, colleges, and vocational schools than in the first year. The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly increased from the first to second year of attending a university, college, or vocational school. The students who changed from “not living alone” in the first year to “living alone” in the second year had a significantly higher frequency of skipping breakfast and lower nutrient intake than those who responded “not living alone” in both years. Nutrient intake was considered to be directly affected by eating habits, such as skipping breakfast and instant food intake, and indirectly affected by household living arrangements.