Okinawa prefecture has attracted tourists as one of the tourist destinations, and also increases the number of the tourist arrivals at present. The tourist arrivals of Kume island tend to decrease compared with a peak in 2003.
Kume-island town has achieved the local modernization by implementation of tourism promotion. For re-growth of tourism, it needs to provide the authenticity “life in Kume island” as the innovation. It is important to involve residents of the island for it.
This study describes how residents recognize the tourism circumstances in the island, and how the local government should involve them to the tourism promotion there.
It is about 50 years, since the first “Kanko-ka”, the subject of study by which “Tourism” is entitled in the junior college and university in Japan was established. In 2010, the university in Japan which had the faculty, the subject of study, course, major, etc. which were carrying out tourism education attained to 125 universities and a student capacity amounted to 17,540.
This paper overviewed the history of Tourism Studies, and discussed the process in which tourism educational organizations were founded, focusing on the relations with two Tokyo Olympic Games, the Games of 1940 and 1964.
Currently, community-based tourism has been attracting attention as an effective measure for regional revitalization, ctively promoted in many places. Although it is recommended to experience regional unique things, it is unclear the tourists are really satisfied with this type of tourism.
Therefore I surveyed the attitude by online questionnaire, it shows that only minority expects to experience regional unique activities.
Besides, many tourists are not satisfied with comfort and safety in the present community-based tourism. These issues should be resolved in order to take part in the market.
Community-based tourism : it means a type of tourism exploitation by local communities, where the local people get involved in receiving tourists and visitants in order to take more advantage of any tourism potential the region has.
After the occurrence of natural disasters, it is commonplace to stop promoting the disaster-stricken areas as a prime destination for tourists. However, recently there is a new tourism trend to promote tours of those stricken areas. It has been found that the tour helps the recovery of local survivors' life in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. This research clarifies that disaster tourism can contribute to stricken areas' economic and social recovery. Moreover, according to recent tourism studies, it is often believed that individual travel is more mature than group tour or packaged tour, However, from the perspective of disaster tourism, the participants of group tour or packaged tour have a deeper experience and they are very satisfied of their itinerary.
“Rural Landscape of Ichinoseki Hondera” is one of the important cultural landscapes which the Japan Agency for Cultural Affairs selected. This area is preserved a nature and temples that have been written in the pictorial depicting the medieval rural landscape. Various measures of local residents and local governments have been carried out in this place for the preservation of landscape. But it's difficult to understand the significance of the traditional historical view in this area. Because it's difficult that the tourist who visited this place understands visually. A tourist can't understand its significance immediately for the view over which a rice paddy just spreads. It's difficult that a tourist understands the significance of this area visually.
However, there is compatibility of “learning tourism” here. Because, if you visit, it is possible to learn the history and charm of the land. We should pay attention to a cultural view in this area and a case of area activation by a sightseeing plan.
Japanese tourists often emphasizes “sight” and “feeling” when they visit. But Japanese tourists need to innovate on sightseeing behavior in “consideration” and “learning”. It's significant to confirm the value of this case as a clue for Japanese sightseeing behavior innovation.
To realize the Japanese government policy of building a tourism-based nation, it is indispensable to attract foreign travelers not only to metropolitan areas but also local areas. Given the Koreans' tendency of traveling abroad and their points of sightseeing interests and rural areas' general characteristics and sightseeing resources they have, I assume that Korean tourists are relatively highly compatible with rural areas. To be successful in inbound travel policy, one significant strategic element is for local municipalities to better understand and grasp target markets' characteristics including tourists' mindsets, motivation and purposes. In conclusion, the mismatch between travelers' profile and local municipalities' inbound travel promoting or their failure to understand travelers' characteristics is one of obstacles in bringing more foreign travelers to rural areas. This factor needs to be carefully taken into account when tourism authorities design destination marketing.
This study aimed to examine the effects of tourism experiences on individual revisit intention by focusing on the role of tourists' memories. The data for this study was collected using an online survey that was sent to tourists who had visited the main island of Okinawa. The research hypotheses were tested using factor analysis, path analysis, and t-test. The results showed that the relationship between cognitive/affective experiences and revisit intention was partially mediated by satisfaction and vividness of memory. Therefore, it was suggested that creating memorable as well as satisfactory tourism experiences were key components for individual revisit intention. The results also suggested that rehearsal which is the replaying of memories not only to oneself but also others, played a significant role in improving the evaluation of experiences, satisfaction, vividness of memory, and revisit intention.
Tadao Umesao wrote Information Industries in 1963, and he presented the bold world picture: Information exists in itself. Existence itself is the information. The world is filled with information. All existence itself is information. As a civilization theory, Umesao predicted the development of the information industry that has the information that exist in all over the world as the industry resource, which would exceed the growth of the existing industry, and the arrival of the information-oriented society that contributes to the human beings as the result. Umesao regards the information concept as the sheer message of existence that emerges in the human lives, and not as the symbolism to describe the world. He regards the world existence itself as the place for the information that the human beings sense, and sees into the arrival of the industrial society with this spirit of industrializing the information into the lives of the human beings. The viewpoint of Umesao gives many suggestions for tourism studies. This article will think of the tourism industry as an information industry that is related with the world experience-based consumption, and study about the recognition, the structure, and the value of the sightseeing and its industry while having the connection with the phenomenology in mind.
This study aims to examine the real possibilities of, and actual limitations on empowerment of local women by Community-Based Tourism (CBT). Tanzania Cultural Tourism Programme (TCTP) has been conducted for many years as sustainable, pro-poor, and community-based tourism, with the aim of the development of local community and of small-scale individual incomes.
However, there are discrepancies between men and women in the local communities in terms of their respective opportunities for true empowerment. Because of their lifestyles, it is difficult, if not impossible, for women to create their own business opportunities outside the local community. Moreover, the chances and degree of development for women depend largely on each coordinator or leader even when they are actively involved in TCTP. In conclusion, CBT programs like TCTP function only partially toward the empowerment of local women. We ought to train coordinators and guides to utilize CBT as a more efficient tool for the more even human resource development.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the problems of curriculums and internships conducted especially in the tourism-related majors in Japan. The approach employed in this research is to compare the curriculums and internship programs adopted by the universities in Japan with those in foreign countries; University of Surrey and École hôtelière de Lausanne in Europe, and Cornell University, Paul Smith's College and University of Central Florida in the United States. The author examines both elements, especially in the overseas universities, to ascertain solutions for improving human resources education in Japan. In this study, the main stress falls on the fact that Japan's situation is quite contrary to overseas from a viewpoint of implementation of curriculums and internships to educate students that fulfil the qualifications of tourism industry.
The issue of fuel surcharge is one of the most important topics to discuss in today's aviation industry. In line with the international regulations many countries might have different fuel surcharge related acts and regulations within their border. As a result, the amount of this surcharge varies accordingly in different countries. This paper discuss current Japanese fuel surcharge issues and implications towards the Japanese tourism industry in general and travel agents in particular.
The fuel surcharge for airline ticket at the Japanese point of sale tends to be higher than airline ticket sales to and from Japan at the foreign land. This gives a wide opportunity for foreign OTAs' to freely expand their sales in the Japanese market at the expense of local Japanese Travel Agents. The Online Travel Agency (OTA) is now the most flourishing business throughout the globe.
On the other hand, the Japanese travel agents are facing a serious difficulty of competing with foreign OTAs' as the Japanese Travel Agency Act put a tight control over them. Hence, this paper concluded that unless the government control of international air tariffs will be amended or abolished it continues creating unfair competition against the Japanese travel agents.
Japanese hotels have not been given a clear definition to date regarding the way they are classified. Although the Japanese hotel industry has been under the influence of its American counterpart, it has failed in adopting the American classification system.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a clear definition of the Japanese hotel classification. The proposed definition will be verified according to the rational development process by the assessment of the workload in the development process of each hotel based on the classification defined.
The purpose of this study is an attempt to convert of own conservative marketing strategy for the overseas package tour products in Japanese travel industry with a new point of view which is based on cultural value & style in overseas travel.
The longer the traveler travels from home to the destination, the more s/he spends at the destination. This is a “law” known in tourism development studies, However, in this world of advancing transportation technology, does it still hold true?
The most accurate method of its examination can be obtained by conducting a large scale survey to tourists, asking their location of residence, destination of travel and the amount spent at the destination, However, this paper verifies the validity of the law by using existing tourism and transportation statistics.
The statistics used in this study are: 1) Japan Tourism Agency's “Tourism Consumption Data”, which provides the average total amount paid for a trip by tourists and their distance travelled; 2) Transport Ministry's “Passenger Travel Mode Survey”, which provides the share of the transportation mode used in a given travel sector; and 3) “Accommodation Statistics”, which sheds light on the number of nights stayed and the amount spent for accommodations, These data, after calculation adjustments, will show the daily amount paid for a trip, besides transportation costs, by tourists and their distance of travel.
Japan has 47 prefectures, The study compared the amount, as obtained from above calculation process, of tourists traveling from Tokyo plus its three neighboring prefectures to all other 43 prefectures, As a result of this comparison, the correlation coefficient between the distance travelled and the amount spent was 0.71, showing strong positive correlation.
The significance of the proof of the law to tourism developers will be that it does make sense to invest more in promoting longdistance travelers, and when a tourist destination is expecting a new mode of transportation connecting a far market, it should prepare for larger tourist consumption.
Few studies have revealed the determinants of inbound tourists' behaviors in Japan quantitatively. Thus, our paper considers the empirical models to examine the willingness of foreign tourists to visit Japan. In particular, utilizing “tourism factors” as which we define what and to what degree foreign tourists care about when they choose the destinations, analyze determinants of their willingness to visit Japan. We have conducted an internet-based survey targeting the American tourists who have multiple outbound experiences. Our estimation results show that those who consider the elements of “meeting with people and interactions,” “attractions and tour spots,” “new experiences,” and “availability of public transportations” as the important factors have higher willingness to visit Japan. This study implies that it is crucial for Japan to enhance tourism resources and infrastructure in a way that meets their needs in order to promote the inbounding tourism.
The content tourism and “the Holy Land pilgrimage” are established as a general noun, and have been increasingly taken up by the media. This study is intended to consider about the way of regional formation clarifying the utilization of the contents.
This paper took up cases which apply contents on railways in Japan, and clarified the effectiveness of regional formation. The examined cases are in the area of tourist resort, streetcar and local train. In addition, this paper took up and analyzed the cases of Kyoto city especially. Furthermore, this paper clarified the problems of regional formation by applying of contents and suggested the ways of solution considering sustainable regional formation.
Inbound tourism is said to have multiple functions. Regarding the function of security, the traditional slogan “Tourism: Passport to Peace” demonstrates the peace making role of international tourism among the different states. Because of the recent and severe international circumstances affecting security, the role of international tourism becomes increasingly important as it may influence the image of respective states. This influence is deemed as a 'soft power'. The relationship between this power and inbound tourism is vital when considering Japan's security policy.
In order to achieve sustainable-tourism, it is indispensable to consider the consumption of resources by tourism industries. This study concentrates on B&Bs, as they have increased in Taiwan. Each B&B manager was interviewed directly to investigate his/her resource consumption behaviors with the beneficiary-pays principle. Although there are many points worthy of consideration, in the end, the consumption of groundwater and spring water without measuring their quantity, which was generated from the failure of the market and the failure of the government, proves to be one of the most critical problems concerning their resource consumption. It is desirable for B&Bs in Taiwan, where there are few water resources because of its geographical characteristics, to install meters to measure how much groundwater and spring water is used in order to manage and improve the use of the natural water resources.
This paper investigates a suitable organization among stakeholders of cooperative promotion system for rural destinations. It also explores issues that stakeholders in rural destinations tend to have for their promotion activities. Munakata city in Fukuoka prefecture is used as a case study of the research and stakeholders such as a destinations marketing organization, city office, city councilor and accommodation provider are selected to conduct a semi-structured in-depth interview. The research findings revealed that a lack of budget, human resource and expertise in tourism marketing are major impediments to conduct cooperative promotion. The results of the research finally compose a framework of cooperative promotion system for rural destinations in Japan and provide an empirical insight of it.
The most number of visitors of sea fishing parks in hot spring tourism area is a traveler who lodges in hot spring house. I researched out potential for expansion of sea fishing parks as tourism resources depends on the improvements of the local area collaboration.
Tour operators (land operators) have for many years been the backbone of international travel by Japanese people. They operate amidst extremely tight restraints, and are constantly impacted by excessive price competition and other factors. As the business environment surrounding the Japanese travel industry continues to change beyond recognition, operators have begun to diversify away from their core business and develop business opportunities in other areas. This paper takes a further look at the work carried out by a tour operator, and looks at examples from the past and present to make observations in regard to the potential for diversification. It is thought possible that this trend may result in a complete change to the landscape of the travel industry in Japan.
This is part of a series reporting “Travelling the old roads” by Ryotaro Shiba. In each report, one key word is selected to analyze the appeal of the travel itself through Shiba's eyes.
The key word selected in this report is “kiyoraka”, or purity and spirituality.
This report analyzes the word in terms of its usage to describe temples and shrines. In more than one third of instances, the word “kiyoraka” is used in association with temples and shrines. Results indicate that Shiba used the word “kiyoraka” to protest against today's Japanese society and its singleminded aim of economic growth based on land development, thus closing our eyes to culture and scenery created by people in the past.
Japanese traditional place name was materialized from the geographical feature and the geology of the land. That is, Japanese traditional place name is “Individuality of the land”. It shows the information on the longtime land at the present. Japanese traditional vegetables are also the same elements because their cultivated by environment.
This note is using the information included in the place name at Mikawashima area, Arakawa, Tokyo.
The main subjects are classifying tourism infrastructure concepts into “Equipment type infrastructure” and “Service type infrastructure” and making available financial resources with support from the government so that not only tourists get the benefits.
To maintain equipment system infrastructure and to enrich the contents of service type infrastructure is important for future tourism promotion.
This paper proposes deriving resources from taxation and creating a system though which funds can circulate in regional area.
Long-term stress may lead to many types of mental health problems. Short-stay vacations at mental health rejuvenation facilities and stress relief training could improve stress management. Recently, tourism enterprises focus on health care and some of them are specific for stress relief and revitalization. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of these facilities on mental health. We conducted a longitudinal study and collected Japanese employees as participants (N=50) to examine the psychological effects of a 1-night stay at a mental health rejuvenation facility and stress management training on their mental health. The results suggested that a mental health rejuvenation facility as short-stay vacation destinations was effective for maintaining the mental health of employees.
In order to maintain sustainable hot spring sites, bring about tourism, it is necessary for the cooperation between regional resources and the tourism industry. It is essential to maintain and preserve the organic chain site resources from escaping because hot springs are drying up. This essay focuses on the fountain management and quality research of the 8 hot springs in Onsen Yonezawa Hattou Society. Afterword, study about the features of hot spring resources.
Despite relatively long history in Japan, cruise has not been popular among Japanese for a long time. Similarly only a few Japanese academic researchers paid attention to this field.
As modern cruise industry started in USA in 1970's and became fast growing segment in the US travel industry, there are many report on this field. This article is to group Japanese and American academic papers and find out what will be next subject for the research on Japanese cruise industry.
The author shows two of the next about the problem of a“parking lot” in a“tourist resort.” One is “the traffic congestion of the circumference community road accompanying the surrounding lack of parking in the tourist resort.” Moreover, another thing is “the bad influence on the environment accompanying surrounding parking lot extension in the tourist resort.” The former causes “bad influence” in the “environment” which is an “extension” of the problem to which “shortage” of a parking lot brings“traffic congestion”, and other things after a parking lot. It can be said that these two are a dilemma. Concerning these two, the author needs to take the concept of a “suitable” parking lot into consideration. However, probably, it will be singular. With the theme, “Matsubara in Miho” where the close-up of a parking lot problem is observed. Moreover, the problem of a“tourist resort” and a “parking lot”, was taken into consideration, by performing problem establishment especially from the position and“sightseeing” of “environmental preservation”. “Matsubara in Miho” became the world heritage 2013. As a result, the parking lot of a large-sized sightseeing bus was installed, and in the obtained portion of a tourist resort -- it will move -- coming out -- a tourist resort will move via shuttle bus or on foot. Inconvenience or an advanced age tourist is physically worried about the inconvenience, which has further occurred. However, further, if it extends from the position of “environmental preservation”, a means demanded will be considered.
Recently, Red Tourism has been attracting attention within China. Moreover, it has also been covered within Japan, although such examples are still few in number. In China, this Red Tourism is being pushed to the forefront in an official state project to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War 2. For these reasons, this investigation report proposes to elucidate the phenomenon of China Red Tourism, still hardly known in Japan.
In concrete terms, it will examine the four following topics: (1) an explanation of research trends in the area of China Red Tourism, (2) a definition and schema of China Red Tourism, (3) a case study of Red Tourism facilities in Shanghai, (4) a brief review of recent trends in Shanghai's Red Tourism.
Tourism is a means of endogenous regional development. Area officials, there is a need to be addressed by utilizing the human resources outside the region. The reason for this is because the area stakeholders to accumulate the skills and knowledge of tourism promotion. In this paper, we consider Tochigi Prefecture Nasu-machi and Gunma Prefecture Ueno and the Tottori Sand Dunes Tottori, Tottori Prefecture as an example.