The molecular structure and pasting properties of the starches from seven normal cultivars of barley were examined and compared with those of normal maize, rice and wheat starches. The barley starches had an actual amylose content of 24.3-27.9%. The starches had different pasting properties, such as maximum viscosity and breakdown, and different amylose gelatinization. A positive correlation was found between the maximum viscosity and the gelatinization degree of amylose, suggesting that low amylose gelatinization restrains the swelling of starch granules. The amylopectins had a low iodine affinity (0.42-0.70 g/100 g) and resembled each other in chain-length distribution with the individual peaks of B 1 and A chains. The amyloses had DPn of 810-1410 with 3.6-5.2 chains per molecule, indicating that barley amyloses differed in molecular structure with the cultivars. Among the cereal starches, barley starches were similar to wheat starch in amylose content and molecular structure, especially molecular size of amylose and chain-length distribution of amylopectin.
The molecular structures and pasting properties of four legume starches (white Dutch runner; WDR, adzuki bean, pea and common bean) were examined. The apparent amylose content (27 .0- 30.0%) was 3.9-9.4% higher than the actual amylose content (17.6-25.5%) due to the high iodine affinity (IA) of the legume amylopectins. The crystalline type of pea starch was of Cb and those of the others were of the Cc. Adzuki bean starch had the highest maximum viscosity and breakdown. No breakdown was observed for pea starch. The legume amylopectins had IA of 1.32-2.28 g/100g and number-average chain-length of 21-22. The phosphorus content of amylopectin varied between 13 and 820 ppm with WDR amylopectin having the highest content. All the legume amylo-pectins had 1-4% of long-chain fraction, being consistent with their high IA. Compared with starches of cereal amylopectins, the legume amylopectins seemed to contain a relatively small amount of A-chain fraction. Distribution pattern for chains of degree of polymerization (DP) 6-8 was similar to those of potato and sweet potato amylopectins in which the amount of these chains decreased with an increase in DP. The legume amyloses had number-average DP of 820-1350 and comprised 2.4-4.7 chains per molecule, being similar to cereal amyloses. Among the legume amyloses, adzuki bean amylose was the largest and most branched molecule.
The neutral polysaccharide from Chlorella vulgaris K-22 cells has been shown by the fragmentationanalysis, methylation analysis, and periodate oxidation studies to be a new type of β-Dgalactanhaving 1, 3-linkages in the backbone and 1, 6-linkages in the side chain. This galactan alsocontains 6-ο-glycosylated 3-ο-methyl-β-D-galactose in the branching regions. The side chain has fourteen residues of D-galactose including 3-ο-metylated one(s). Mild acid hydrolysis of the galactan yielded three new disaccharides, 6-ο -(3-ο -methyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-galactopyranose, 6-ο-β-D-galactopyranosyl-3-ο -methyl-D-galactopyranose, and 6-ο -(3-ο -methyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-ο-methyl-D-galactopyranose, together with 3-ο-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-galactose, 6-ο-β-Dgalactopyranosyl-D-galactose, and ο-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-ο -β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-D-galactose.
The oligosaccharide units of xyloglucans from four apple cultivars were analyzed by enzymatic digestion followed by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The oligosaccharide units of the polysaccharides were XXXG, XXLG, XLXG, XXFG, XLLG and XLFG [where each (1→4)-β-linked D-glucosyl residue in the backbone is given a one-letter code according to its substituents: G=β-D-Glc;X=α-D-Xyl-(1→6)-β-D-Glc;L=β-D-Gal-(1→2)-α-DXyl-(1→6)-β-D-Glc;F=α-L-Fuc-(1→2)-(3a)-Gal-(1→2)-a-D-Xyl-(1→6)-β-D- Glc] in an apProx mate molar ratio of 23 :9: 12:26: 14: 16 for 'Starking Delicious, ' of 26:7 :7:28: 8 :24 for `Fuji, ' of 24:3 :8:27:5 :33 for `Ohrin, ' and of 24:2:8:28 : 3 :35 for `Ralls Janet (Kokko).' Present result clearly shows that apple xyloglucan contains structural oligosaccharide units, XXLG, XLXG and XLLG in addition to XXXG, XXFG and XLFG.
Starch granules were prepared from seeds of a sample of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lind 1), cultivated in a greenhouse, and four samples of loquat cultivated in the open field. The properties of the starch granules were examined. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The mean particle size of loquat seed starch were 12.6μm for the greenhouse culture and 9.5-10.7 μm for the open field culture. 2) The peak temperature for the gelatinization of loquat seed starch, obtained by dif-ferential scanning calorimetry (DSC), were 57.2°C for the greenhouse culture and 62.4-64.1°C for the open field culture. 3) The amylose contents of loquat seed starches, determined by gel chromatography of isoamylase-debranched materials were 28.6% for the greenhouse culture and 22.4-26.9% for the open field culture. 4) The peak viscosity and breakdown of loquat seed starches, determined by a Rapid Visco Analyzer, tended to be higher in the greenhouse culture than in the open field culture. 5) The X-ray diffractograms of the loquat seed starches showed Cb type patterns for the greenhouse culture and C type patterns for the open field culture.
There is still no significant change in the general view on cellulose digestion in animals, which is considered to be accomplished by symbiotes in the alimentary tracts. This is in spite of many experiments during the 20th century which have suggested the presence of endogenous cellulases in animals. In 1998, the first two examples of animal endogenous cellulase genes were isolated from plant cyst-nematodes and a termite. Since then, it has been conclusively shown that members of glycoside-hydrolase family (GHF) 5 are present in nematodes, GHF 9 members are present in termites, cockroaches and crayfish, and a GHF 45 member is found in beetles. The GHF 9 members from these animals form an independent Glade from other GHF 9 members. Thus it is supposed that a GHF 9 cellulase gene originated in an ancestral species among arthropods and was carried to the present species during the course of phylogenetic development. Different from fungal and bacterial cellulases, all animal cellulases, other than some of nematode origins, are composed only of a catalytic domain, which alone, is not effective in digesting the native form of cellulose so it is supposed that the animals in question developed an unique cellulose digesting system using the help of masticating organs.