Salmon cartilage proteoglycan fractions have recently gained favor as ingredients of functional food and cosmetics. An optimal hot water method to extract proteoglycan from salmon cartilage has recently been developed. The extracted cartilage includes hyaluronan and collagen in addition to proteoglycan as counterparts that interact with each other. In this study, biochemical analyses and atomic force microscopical analysis revealed global molecular images of proteoglycan in the hot water extract. More than seventy percent of proteoglycans in this extract maintained their whole native structures. Hyaluronan purified from the hot water extract showed a distribution with high molecular weight similar to hyaluronan considered to be native hyaluronan in cartilage. The current data is evidence of the quality of this hot water cartilage extract.
Cellobiose phosphorylase from Cellvibrio gilvus was used to prepare 1,5-anhydro-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose [βGlc(1→4)AF] from 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose and α-D-glucose 1-phosphate. βGlc(1→4)AF decomposed into D-glucose and ascopyrone T via β-elimination. Higher pH and temperature caused faster decomposition. However, decomposition proceeded significantly even under mild conditions. For instance, the half-life of βGlc(1→4)AF was 17 h at 30 °C and pH 7.0. Because βGlc(1→4)AF is a mimic of cellulose, in which the C2 hydroxyl group is oxidized, such decomposition may occur in oxidized cellulose in nature. Here we propose a possible oxidizing pathway by which this occurs.
3-Keto-levoglucosan (3ketoLG) has been postulated to be the product of a reaction catalyzed by levoglucosan dehydrogenase (LGDH), a bacterial enzyme involved in the metabolism of levoglucosan (LG). To investigate the LG metabolic pathway catalyzed by LGDH, 3ketoLG is needed. However, 3ketoLG has not been successfully isolated from the LGDH reaction. This study investigated the ability of pyranose oxidase to convert LG into 3ketoLG by oxidizing the C3 hydroxyl group. During the oxidation of LG, 3ketoLG was spontaneously crystallized in the reaction mixture. Starting with 500 mM LG, the isolation yield of 3ketoLG was 80 %. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that a part of 3ketoLG dimerized in aqueous solution, explaining its poor solubility. Even under normal conditions, 3ketoLG was unstable in aqueous solution, with a half-life of 16 h at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The decomposition proceeded through β-elimination of the C–O bonds at both C1 and C5, as evidenced by decomposition products. This instability explains the difficulty in obtaining 3ketoLG via the LGDH reaction.
The aim of this study was to clarify the change in the powder properties of rice flour depending on the milling process. Rice flour samples, which have gradual mechanical shock properties, were prepared using different milling methods. Furthermore, the correlation between the starch damage, owing to mechanical shock, and powder properties of rice flour was investigated. The particle size was changed gradually through each milling process; however, the change did not clearly correlate with starch damage. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of nongelatinized samples showed the typical A-type structure of starch. The crystal structure of starch in rice flour may change to a disorder state with the progress of milling; thus, in this study, instead of crystallinity, we considered the disorder index (DI) calculated from the XRD intensity of samples. Relationship between DI and starch damage was confirmed with R2 = 0.923. Therefore, the mechanical shock caused by the milling process contributes to the crystal state of starch. The parameter qm calculated from the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation of each sample corresponded to the DI. This result suggested that the sorption site of rice flour decreased, and a positive correlation was observed between the parameter K and DI. Thus, the interaction between the rice flour and water molecules weakened because of the mechanical shock. In addition, the use of a SEM image supports the insight that the change in parameter K may reflect the structural change in the solid phase. These results demonstrated that the change in powder properties of rice flour caused by mechanical shock of the milling could evaluate quantitatively.
A GH67 α-glucuronidase gene derived from Bacillus halodurans C-125 was expressed in E. coli to obtain a recombinant enzyme (BhGlcA67). Using the purified enzyme, the enzymatic properties and substrate specificities of the enzyme were investigated. BhGlcA67 showed maximum activity at pH 5.4 and 45 °C. When BhGlcA67 was incubated with birchwood, oat spelts, and cotton seed xylan, the enzyme did not release any glucuronic acid or 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid from these substrates. BhGlcA67 acted only on 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose (MeGlcA3Xyl3), which has a glucuronic acid side chain with a 4-O-methyl group located at its non-reducing end, but did not on β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(l→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylop- yranose (MeGlcA3Xyl4) and α-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose (GlcA3Xyl3). The environment for recognizing the 4-O-methyl group of glucuronic acid was observed in all the crystal structures of reported GH67 glucuronidases, and the amino acids for discriminating the 4-O-methyl group of glucuronic acid were widely conserved in the primary sequences of the GH67 family, suggesting that the 4-O-methyl group is critical for the activities of the GH67 family.
A fermented beverage of plant extracts (Super Ohtaka®) was prepared from about 50 kinds of fruits and vegetables. This natural fermentation was performed by yeast (Zygosaccharomyces spp. and Pichia spp.) and lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc spp.) and resulted in the production of a novel fructopyranose-containing saccharide, which was subsequently isolated using carbon-Celite column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. The structure of the saccharide was determined using MALDI-TOF MS and NMR, and the saccharide was identified as β-D-fructopyranosyl-(2→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2↔1)-α-D-glucopyranoside. This is the first description of this novel saccharide and its isolation from a natural source.