Journal of Applied Glycoscience
Online ISSN : 1880-7291
Print ISSN : 1344-7882
ISSN-L : 1344-7882
Volume 51 , Issue 4
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
Regular Papers
  • Atsushi Shimakage, Youhei Yamagata, Keietsu Abe, Kazuhiko Nishitani, T ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 285-289
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We purified a substance which stimulated the production of penicillolycin, an extracellular metalloprotease of Penicillium citrinum from wheat bran extracts and studied its structural features. Based on the results from 1H-NMR measurements and enzymatic hydrolysis, the substance was found to be small α-1,4-1,6-branched glucan mixtures having a molecular mass of about 7 kDa with short side chains attached to 6 position of α-1,4-linked main chains. The structure was different from glycogen with respect to the molecular mass and the side chain distribution patterns.
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  • Hiroto Kikuchi, Taizo Nagura, Masanao Inoue, Taro Kishida, Hiroaki Sak ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 291-296
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We produced high purity difructose anhydride III (DFA III; α-D-fructofuranose-β-D-fructofuranose 1,2´: 3´,2 dianhydride) crystals from the crude inulin extracted from chicory with inulin fructotransferase (depolymerizing) induced by H65-7 strain of Arthrobacter sp. The physical, chemical, and physiological properties of DFA III have been investigated in this report. The degradability and Maillard reactivity of DFA III in the low pH solutions were much lower than those of sucrose. DFA III showed no utilization by Streptococcus mutans and Bifidobacterium in vitro. Digestion test with rat intestinal acetone powder and absorption test with everted sacs of rat small intestine showed that DFA III had low digestibility and absorbability in vitro. Diet containing 2% (w/w) DFA III increased the cecal short chain fatty acids and induced a shift of the cecal microflora in rats. On the other hand, a daily oral ingestion of 5 g DFA III by healthy adults showed no influence on fecal microflora.
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  • Fuyu Ito, Yoshihiko Amano, Kouichi Nozaki, Inder M. Saxena, [in Japan ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 297-301
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Morphology changes in bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC23769 were observed in the presence of β-glucodisaccharides such as gentiobiose and cellobiose. Endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity in culture broth was higher than that in the absence of those sugars. So we have investigated the properties of endo-β-1,4-glucanase (AEG) produced by this bacterium. This enzyme could hydrolyze water-soluble cellulose such as CMC, hydroxyethyl cellulose and cellodextrin, and decreased the viscosity of the substrate solution. On the other hand, AEG could not produce any soluble sugars from water-insoluble cellulose such as Avicel and bacterial cellulose. These properties were completely different from endo-glucanase from fungi. AEG hydrolyzed cellohexaose and produced cellobiose, cellotriose and cellotetraose, but in the presence of bacterial cellulose, the soluble sugars produced from cellohexaose disappeared in the reaction mixture. It is suggested that AEG might have transglycosyl activity, though it belongs to glycosidase family 8. It is proposed that this activity is closely related to cellulose synthesis.
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  • Tetsuya Horibata, Masaaki Nakamoto, Hidetsugu Fuwa, Naoyoshi Inouchi
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 303-313
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Structural and physicochemical properties of rice starches were investigated using four types of endosperm starches (i.e., waxy, low amylose (AM), medium AM and high AM starches) of rice cultivars recently bred in the agricultural experiment station of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan and harvested mainly in 1998 and 1999. There was a highly negative relationship between the true AM contents and the peak viscosity measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) for non-waxy starches. In the group of high AM starches, there were two types of rice starch samples with similar apparent AM contents (about 30%), different contents of super-long chains (SLC) in amylopectin (AP), and different values in the peak viscosity and setback of starches measured by RVA. Since there was a highly positive relationship between SLC contents and setback, the SLC in AP seems to have a great influence on the setback of starch. Both of side-chain length distribution within the short-chain range of AP and the SLC content of AP greatly influence the gelatinization temperature of rice starches. The SLC in AP contributed to neither swelling nor dissolution of the rice starches in water at 75°C. We proposed a scheme for the relationship between the SLC and Fr. A (DP 6-12) contents of AP as a classification of endosperm starches of rice cultivars recently bred in Japan. There were significant differences among the setback values of the starches plotted into three zones determined by the SLC contents in the scheme.
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  • Hirofumi Nozaki, Akio Miyamoto, Ken-Go Hayashi, Motozumi Matsui, Takas ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 315-320
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The activity of α3-D-mannoside-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT I; EC 2.4.1.101), which catalyzes the first step in the conversion of oligomannose to complex or hybrid N-glycans of glycoproteins, was detected in bovine follicular fluid (bFF). The GnT I activity in bFF had a pH optimum of 5.8 and an absolute requirement for either Co2+, Mn2+, or Mg2+, the activity being stimulated by these cations in the above order. The apparent Km value for α1-3α1-6 mannopentaose of GnT I in bFF was 2.17 mM. The substrate specificity for the GnT I activity decreased in the following order: α1-3α1-6 mannopentaose> α1-3α1-6 mannotriose>α1-3 mannobiose. The GnT I activity in bFF from large atretic follicles was significantly higher than in that from large dominant follicles. Moreover there was no significant difference between the GnT I activities in bFF from dominant follicles collected before and after surge of luteinizing hormone (LH surge). These data suggest that the GnT I activity in bFF may reflect functional changes in the microenvironment which lead to follicular atresia.
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  • Kazuhiro Nara, Seiko Ito, Koji Kato, Yoji Kato
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 321-325
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The hemicellulose fraction which is soluble in 24% KOH solution (HC-II) from the cell-walls of apple flesh contained a small amount of galactoglucomannan in addition to a large amount of xyloglucan. A crude galactoglucomannan was isolated from the HC-II fraction with binding capacity to cellulose microfibrils. The crude galactoglucomannan fraction was treated with xyloglucanase to remove concomitant xyloglucan, followed by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatography to give a purified galactoglucomannan fraction. Sugar composition analysis showed that the purified galactoglucomannan fraction consisted of Man, Glc and Gal in the molar ratio of 5.7:3.0:1.1. Methylation analysis suggested that a galactoglucomannan present in apple flesh had β-(1→4)-linked Glc and Man residues, some of which were branched at the O-6 position with Gal residues.
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  • Yoji Kato, Seiko Ito, Yasushi Mitsuishi
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 327-333
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the arrangement of the glucose residues which are not xylosylated at O-6 in the β-1,4-D-glucan backbone of xyloglucan from Gramineae, a xyloglucan from immature barley plants was hydrolyzed by a purified Geotrichum sp. M128 xyloglucan specific endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase (xyloglucanase). The fragment oligosaccharides were then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of the flight mass spectrometry before and after treatment with an oligoxyloglucan-specific glycosidase, oligoxyloglucan reducing end-specific cellobiohydrolase from Geotrichum sp. M128, with a mixture of isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase from Eupenicillium sp. M9 and β-D-glucosidase from Trichoderma viride, or with β-D-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. Tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa- and nona-saccharide fractions were obtained as major oligosaccharide fractions, which might be composed of XX, of XXG, of XXGG, of XXGGG and LXGG, of XLGGG, LXGGG, XXGGGG and GXXGGG, and of XLGGGG, LXGGGG, GXLGGG, GLXGGG and XXGGGGG, respectively. In addition, the oligosaccharide units of bamboo shoot xyloglucan were analyzed. The structure of bamboo shoot xyloglucan was shown to be very similar to that of barley xyloglucan. These results suggest that the Gramineae xyloglucan has regions consisting of two, three, four and five contiguous glucose residues which are not xylosylated at O-6 in the β-1,4-D-glucan backbone.
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  • Yuichi Yamamoto, Tomomi Saito, Katsumi Ajisaka
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 335-339
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Although a recombinant β-1,3-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans has been recognized to catalyze a regioselective transglycosylation to give β-(1→3)-linked oligosaccharides, β-D-Galp-(1→6)-D-Gal derivatives were recently reported to be synthesized predominantly when D-galactose derivatives were used as acceptors. In the present study, the relation between the regioselectivity in the transglycosylation reaction and the hydrolysis specificity of the β-1,3-galactosidase was examined. Although β-D-Galp-(1→3)-D-GalNAc was hy-drolyzed much faster than β-D-Galp-(1→6)-D-GalNAc, β-D-Galp-(1→3)-β-D-Galp-OMe was hydrolyzed slower than β-D-Galp-(1→6)-β-D-Galp-OMe. This fact indicated preferential synthesis of β-D-Galp-(1→6)-β-D-Galp-OMe by transglycosylation. In the transglycosylation using other β-galactosidases of different origins such as from B. circulans, bovine testes, and E. coli, moderate regioselectivity was observed in reactions using D-galactose as an acceptor. The unexpected regioselectivity in the transglycosylation to D-galactose was concluded to be a result only found in the reaction using the β-1,3-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans, and could be attributed to irregular specificity in the hydrolysis reaction.
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Notes
  • Wataru Sumiyoshi, Tadasu Urashima, Tadashi Nakamura, Ikichi Arai, Taka ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 341-344
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The concentrations of three galactosyllactoses found in the milk of 24 Japanese women were determined using normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the 2-aminopyridyl (PA) derivatives of the oligosaccharides. The milk was collected at 4, 10, 30 and 100 days post partum. The concentration of 6´-galactosyllactose (6´-GL) was maximal at 4 days post partum, and then decreased, whereas the concentrations of 3´- and 4´-galactosyllactose (3´-GL and 4´-GL) did not change during the course of lactation. In human milk, 6´-GL was the main oligosaccharide among these galactosyllactoses at 4 days post partum, in contrast to bovine milk in which 3´-GL has been reported to be predominant. The concentrations of these galactosyllactoses in human milk were much lower than those reported for 2´-fucosyllacose, 3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-fucopentaose I , II and III, and 3´- and 6´-N-acetylneuraminyllactose.
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  • Hikaru Watanabe, Masayuki Nakano, Kazuyuki Oku, Hajime Aga, Tomoyuki N ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 345-347
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We searched for a cyclic tetrasaccharide, cyclo-{→6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→} (abbreviated as CTS) in various foods. GLC analysis revealed that sake lees and sake contained CTS in ranges of 61 to 378 μg/g and 0.23 to 7.05 μg/g, respectively. CTS isolated from sake lees, showed 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra completely identical to those of CTS enzymatically synthesized from starch. We examined CTS formation in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC9763. Fed with additional sucrose on the 25th day of culture, cells (8.4 g) from a 39-day culture gave a significant amount of CTS (25.2 mg).
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Regular Papers (in Japanese with English Abstract)
  • Isao Hanashiro, Kensuke Ohta, Chieno Takeda, Hiroyuki Mizukami, Yasuhi ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 349-354
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Composition and structures of materials leached from rice grains during cooking were investigated in relation to their contribution to the adhesiveness of cooked grains, an important determinant of eating-quality preference. Two cultivars of rice, Koshihikari and Hoshiyutaka, are compared because of their well known sticky and less sticky cooked grains, respectively, and a waxy cultivar Hiyokumochi was also included. The amount of materials leached from rice grains increased with the increase of temperature at which the materials were collected. Hiyokumochi, Koshihikari and Hoshiyutaka yielded leached materials of 0.9, 0.8 and 1.3%, respectively, of rice grains (200 g) cooked at 85°C. More than 93% of the materials were carbohydrate. Fluorescent labeling/GPC showed that the materials comprised two major populations with degree of polymerization (DP) of ∼6000 and ∼1500. The populations were degraded by α-amylase or isoamylase, indicating they were starch-derived α-glucans. Amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) fractions were prepared by 1-BuOH precipitation of the leached materials. AM content was 1, 9 and 21% for Hiyokumochi, Koshihikari and Hoshiyutaka, respectively. In comparison with amylose and amylopectin fractionated from starch, both AM and AP had about 1/2 of number-average DP, and chain-length distribution of AP was essentially the same. Replacement of leached liquid of Koshihikari at 85°C to that from Hoshiyutaka resulted in the decrease of adhesiveness of cooked grains of Koshihikari from 334 to 173 erg (average of 40 grains) and the increase of ratio of grains with lower adhesiveness. These results suggested that the higher the ratio of the small amylose leached, the lower the adhesiveness of cooked grains.
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  • Koji Takami, Yoshiko Nakaura, Tetsuya Horibata, Tsuyoshi Koriyama, Nao ...
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 355-362
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between the physical properties of cooked rice and the properties of endosperm starches of new types of rice grains of 12 cultivars (15 samples) cultivated in 2001 at several places has been investigated by measuring the hardness and stickiness of freshly cooked and stale cooked rice using a Tensipresser, apparent amylose content, DSC thermograms, and RVA viscograms of the endosperm starches. The range of apparent amylose content of the endosperm starches of the new types of rice grains was 8.1-30.0%. There were highly positive relationships between the hardness of freshly cooked and stale cooked rice measured by a Tensipresser and the apparent amylose content, iodine affinity (blue value and wavelength at absorption maximum), and RVA setback, and highly negative relationships between the stickiness of freshly cooked and stale cooked rice measured by the Tensipresser. There were highly negative relationships between the hardness of freshly cooked and stale cooked rice measured by the Tensipresser and the degree of collapse and breakdown measured by RVA, and a highly positive relationship between the stickiness of freshly cooked and stale cooked rice measured by the Tensipresser.
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Topics (in Japanese with English Abstract)
  • Hisao Itabashi
    2004 Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 363-367
    Published: 2004
    Released: May 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reducing malodor emissions from the feces of animals is one of the great concerns in the animal industry. A range of indigestible oligosaccharides has been shown to alleviate fecal odor in non-ruminant animals. Dietary supplementation with lactosucrose decreased the cecal concentration of ammonia and phenols in chickens. The number of cecal bifidobacteria was increased, while that of clostridia was decreased. Dietary lactulose also decreased fecal ammonia, propionic acid and hydrogen sulfide in pigs. In ruminant animals, lactosucrose was broken down by rumen microbes, but some oligosaccharides, including lactitol and galactocylmaltose, tended to be more resistant to ruminal fermentation. During the intake of these oligosugars by cattle, fecal ammonia, indole and skatole were decreased, and bifidobacteria and eubacteria were increased. These effects were also shown when sarsaponin was used as a feed supplement. Recently, attention has been focused on ruminal methane emissions because of their effect on global warming. Many kinds of ruminal methane inhibitors are usually volatile and liquid compounds, and have a pungent odor. To overcome these problems, cyclodextrin (CD) has been used by forming an inclusion complexes. Several CD-complexes, including horseradish, iodopropane, medium chain fatty acids and diallylmaleate, were prepared, and it was shown that the dietary addition of these complexes offers the potential to inhibit ruminal methane production. A decrease in methane emissions by these chemicals will reduce the contribution of ruminants to the global methane volume.
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