Journal of Applied Glycoscience
Online ISSN : 1880-7291
Print ISSN : 1344-7882
ISSN-L : 1344-7882
Volume 50 , Issue 4
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Isao Hanashiro, Shigeru Kamiyama, Ikuo Ikeda, Yasushi Yoshimoto, Osamu ...
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 453-459
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: July 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: The molecular structure and some properties of starches from rhizomes and fusiform roots of wild turmeric (Curcuma aromatica Salisb.) have been examined . Starch content of the rhizomes and fusiform roots was 9.2 and 6.5% with actual amylose content of 25 and 20%, respectively . Both starches showed a B-type Xray diffraction pattern. RVA viscograms for both starches showed small breakdown, and the rhizome starch showed two-fold higher maximum and minimum viscosities and setback . Thermal properties indicated that crystallites in the starch granules were similar in content but different in structure . The amyloses had numberaverage degree of polymerization (DPn ) of?`900 and the amyloses with DPn 400-500 were predominant on a molar basis. Branched molecules of amylose consisted of 13 and 17% by mole and had an average number of chains of branched molecule (NCB) of 4.8 and 3.4. The amylopectins had DPn of 3250 and 6040, and three molecular species with different size were observed. Number-average chain length (CL) of the amylopectins was 25 and molar ratio of unit chains, (A + B1)/(B2 + B3), was 3.8 and 5.3, respectively. The size-distribution of C chains of the wild turmeric amylopectins showed a peak at DP35 . The phosphorus content was 2200 ppm for the rhizome and 600 ppm for the fusiform-root amylopectin, and the amount of phosphorus linked to C-6 position of glucosyl residues was exceptionally low, 14 and 17 %, respectively . The esterified phosphates were found to be linked mainly to long chains (B2 and B3), and DPn of phosphorylated unit-chains was 42 and 49, respectively.
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  • Wataru Sumiyoshi, Tadasu Urashima, Tadashi Nakamura, Ikichi Arai, Taka ...
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 461-467
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: The concentrations of the six major sialyl oligosaccharides found in the milk of 24 Japanese women were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography of the 3-methyl-1-phenyl-5- pyrazolone derivatives of the oligosaccharides. The milk was collected at 4, 10, 30 and 100 days postpartum. The concentrations of all six oligosaccharides decreased during the course of lactation. The concentrations of 6'-sialyllactose, sialyllacto-N-tetraose b and disialyllacto-N-tetraose decreased only after 10 days postpartum, whereas those of sialyllacto-N-tetraose a and sialyllacto-N-neotetraose c as well as 3'-sialyllactose decreased from 4 days postpartum. Large differences were observed between present data and those previously reported for Italian women, both in terms of the content and in the variation pattern of each oligosaccharide during the course of lactation. These differences may be caused by the different ethnicity of the donors as well as the assay methods used in the studies.
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  • Akiko Yamashita, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Sumio Kitahata, Katsuyoshi Nakani ...
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 469-474
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: a-Galactosidases from Aspergillus niger APC-9319 and Candida guilliermondii H-404 efficiently catalyzed the transgalactosylation to allyl alcohol. In the case of C. guilliermondii H-404 α-galactosidase, the yield of a main transfer product to allyl alcohol P2 correspondingly increased with the increase of allyl alco-hol concentration. The maximum yield of P2 (250 mM) was obtained with conditions of 35% (v/v) allyl alco-hol and 0.6 M melibiose. On the other hand, in Asp. niger APC-9319 α-galactosidase, the yield of P2 reached a maximum with 17.5% (v/v) allyl alcohol concentration. At more than 20% (v/v) allyl alcohol, the amount of P2 decreased because the allyl alcohol inhibited the enzyme activity. P2 was confirmed to be allyl α-D-galactopyranoside by enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C-NMR analysis. Furthermore, Asp. niger APC-9319 and C. guilliermondii H-404 α-galactosidases catalyzed the transgalactosylation to allyl α-galactopyranoside. The yield of transfer product to allyl α-galactopyranoside by Asp. niger APC-9319 α-galactosidase was higher than that by C. guilliermondii H-404 α-galactosidase. The maximum yield was approximately 20% of the weight (g) of allyl α-galactopyranoside used. The transfer product to allyl a-galactopyranoside was separated into three peaks named a, b and c. The structures of a and b were confirmed to be allyl 6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-6-O -α-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranoside and allyl 6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, respectively, by enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C-NMR analysis. The structure of c was estimated to be allyl 3-O -α-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranoside.
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  • Daisuke Omoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Yumiko Obana, Kanako Matsumoto, Naoto Iso ...
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 475-479
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: Two cDNA clones for the large and small subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), designated pvagpLl and pvagpSl, respectively, were isolated from developing seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Each deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity (65-86%) with those of legumi nous AGPase large or small subunits. Northern blot analysis revealed that both mRNA species accumulated abundantly at the early-to mid-stages of seed development, indicating that both genes are synchronically ex pressed during seed maturation. Both gene products were also detected in leaves, stems and roots of kidney bean. In leaves, the pvagpLl mRNA level was constant during the diurnal cycle, whereas the pvagpSl mRNA level decreased markedly during the dark period. These results indicate that the pvagpLl and pvagpSl genes are differentially regulated by environmental and spatial conditions.
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  • Naomy Ohwada, Ken-ichi Ishibashi, Kazunori Hironaka, Kazuo Yamamoto
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 481-485
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: July 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: Starch was isolated from mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seeds and its chemical and physicochemical properties were determined. The starch had 33.19% of amylose and an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern (major reflections at 2θ=15, 17 and 23°). The amylograph patterns of 5 and 8% mungbean starch pastes highly depended on concentration. Differential scanning calorimetry showed endotherms at 59-69-75°C (To, Tp, Tc) and enthalpy of 6.11 J/g. The rheological parameters G′ (storage modulus), G″ (loss modulus) and G* (complex modulus) were higher at 10% than at 5 % concentration, but tan δ (G″/G′) was almost the same. Gel permeation chromatography of acid resistant residues showed peaks with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 25 and 17 before and after treatment with isoamylase, respectively.
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  • Isao Hanashiro, Hiroshi Shinohara, Yasuhito Takeda
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 487-491
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The fluorescent labeling/HPSEC method, which is capable of direct determination of a molar distribution, was applied to structural characterization of the product from amylose by starch branching enzyme(SBE) from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The SBE product, excluding possible cyclic molecules, wasa mixture of branched and linear molecules with molar proportions of 65 and 35%, respectively. Size distribution of the product on a molar basis showed three distinct populations at degree of polymerization (DP) of1190, 30 and 7-6, which suggested branched, linear/branched, and linear molecules, respectively. The debranched SBE products exhibited periodicity with intervals of -6, that is, peaks at DP 6, 11, 18 and 29, which implies a helical turn being a unit-structure for SBE action. C-chain of branched molecules of the SBEproduct showed a narrow DP distribution (30-50) which was distinct from that of native amylopectin.
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  • Hirokazu Matsui, Takeshi Senoura, Naoto Isono, Yasutaka Sakurai, Shige ...
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 493-497
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: Starch granules from the leaves of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), as well as from seeds, asso ciate the protein with the molecular mass of 59 kDa. Our previous study has shown that the 59 kDa-protein in seeds is granule-bound starch synthase I (PvGBSSIa) and that the transcript specifically accumulates to seeds. The determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 59 kDa protein in starch granules from leaves, GMKLIFVGMEVGP, was homologous to, but somewhat different from, that of PvGBSSIa. A cDNA clone (designated pvgbsslb) for the leaf protein (PvGBSSIb) was isolated from kidney bean leaves by reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR (RT-PCR), 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end), and 3'-RACE. The pre dicted amino acid sequence of mature PvGBSSIb displayed significant identity (83%) to that of pea GBSSIb. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated that the pvgbsslb transcripts predominantly accumulate in leaves. Recombinant PvGBSSIb was purified from Escherichia coil and some enzymatic properties were investigated.
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  • David J Manners
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 499-504
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: February 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abstract: Whilst it is generally accepted that glycogen is synthesized from UDPG by the combined action of a chain-lengthening enzyme (glycogen synthase) and a branching enzyme (BE), the synthesis of amylopectinfrom ADPG requires a more complex enzyme system which includes various isoforms of the related starch synthase and plant BEs. In addition, several workers have suggested that debranching enzymes (DBEs) are involved. These suggestions, which are based mainly on molecular biological experiments, require mechanisms which are incompatible with much of the biochemical evidence. Overall, the involvement of DBEs in amylopectin biosynthesis has not been unambiguously established, although DBEs could play a role in the control of phytoglycogen biosynthesis by a separate pathway, or in starch granule initiation and growth.
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  • [in Japanese]
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 505
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Ayumi Tanaka
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 507-508
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Junji Yamaguchi
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 509-510
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Yasunori Nakamura
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 511-512
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Ryo Funada
    2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 513-514
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 2003 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 515-523
    Published: October 20, 2003
    Released: June 28, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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