At the present time, about half of Japan’s fishing settlements are vulnerable to large-scale disasters. The aim of this research was to acquire helpful insights for the future on reducing risks in the evacuation and relocation of the elderly. Our survey involved two steps: ① As a model case of a Japanese fishing village with an aging population, to identify aspects that could interfere with evacuation when a disaster occurs, we looked at the elderly people living in Minami Ise City, Tashikaraura District, in Mie Prefecture. ② As a model case for determining the need for relocation of the elderly, field investigations and examination of evacuation routes were conducted at four fishing villages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture. In step 1, the aspects that we identified were: co-operation with surrounding residents, easy to understand indications, and the need to separate pedestrians and vehicles. In step 2, we concluded that the need for relocation of the elderly can be decreased by removing obstructions on the evacuation routes.