This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the increase of frictional resistance on paper in improving the accuracy of handwriting control, by focusing on proprioception and tactile. First grade elementary students (N＝133) participated in this study. We used sandpaper to increase the frictional resistance on paper.
Results indicated significantly higher scores for handwriting tasks when using sandpaper compared to not using sandpaper (p＜.05). The scores on the effect of sandpaper were defined as the differences in handwriting scores between tasks using and not using sandpaper. The results indicated no significant correlation between the effects of sandpaper scores and sensory test scores (proprioception: p＝.07, tactile: p＝.35). Comparison with the groups created based on the score of handwriting tasks —Low group (poor handwriting skills) and High group (better handwriting skills)— revealed that the Low group had lower scores than the High group only in the proprioceptive test (proprioception: p＝.07, tactile: p＝.19). The handwriting task scores of the Low group improved significantly with the use of sandpaper (p＜.01).
These findings suggest that increasing of frictional resistance on paper could be an effective method of improving the accuracy of handwriting in children with poor handwriting skills, and proprioceptive feedback is a significant factor in handwriting controlling handwriting.