The influences of literacy level at age five in predicting the acquisition of hiragana writing in the first grade was investigated in Japanese children (N = 331). The results of a teacher’s checklist filled in the last year of preschool and a hiragana dictation task conducted in the first year of primary school were compared. The results indicated significant relationships between “shiritori” skills in the checklist and phonological errors in the dictation tasks. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between the ability to copy a triangle in the checklist, with the ability to write the name in hiragana and letter form errors in the dictation task. These findings suggest that “shiritori” abilities and writing the name in hiragana at age five influenced the number and characteristics of hiragana writing errors in the first grade. Further research is required to examine how these two factors affect learning to write.
The reliability and validity of the mathematics curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) were investigated in Japanese elementary school students. Elementary school students from grades 1-6 participated in study 1. The classroom teachers administered the M-CBM three times at the end of each term and mathematics achievement test (Norm-Referenced Test in mathematics: Tatsuno et al., 2009) at the end of the third term. Results demonstrated that the scores of M-CBM increased across time, and the M-CBM scores significantly correlated with the mathematics achievement test score. These results suggest that the M-CBM is sensitive to change, and has high concurrent, and predictive validity. In study 2, the author examined the test-retest reliability (one week) and the alternate form reliability of the MCBM in elementary school students. Results indicated that the test-retest reliability and the alternate form reliability were sufficiently high. It is concluded that the M-CBM can be used with Japanese elementary school students as a screening and progress monitoring tool.