Corn (Zea mays L.) has long been used as a forage crop because of its high nutritive value. Purple corn has an added benefit, because it contains anthocyanin, a strong antioxidant, in its cob, kernel, and leaf-stems. Thus, it may offer additional health benefits as a livestock feed. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and anthocyanin content of corn cob, kernel, and leaf-stem. NIRS calibration of DPPH radical-scavenging activity and anthocyanin content of corn cob and leaf-stem with a high ratio of the standard error of performance to the standard deviation of the reference data (≥2.4) and a high coefficient of correlation (≥0.81) was used for the screening along with multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least square regression (PLSR), or principal component regression (PCR) analysis. Our results demonstrate that NIRS can be used to estimate high DPPH radical-scavenging activity and high anthocyanin content of corn samples for breeding.
Rapid economic development in Inner Mongolia, China, is pushing up the consumption of livestock products as well as forcing the structure of agricultural production to change in recent years. These changes are causing income gaps among farming populations. This study aims: (１) to identify the structural change of agriculture in Inner Mongolia by comparing between 2000 and 2007, (2) to measure the effects of agricultural production factors on income; and (3) to discuss the possible future issues based on the analysis results. Two areas, a pastureland area (33 areas) and a pasture/agricultural area (37 areas) were analyzed in this study. A principal component analysis was conducted for both areas using four concepts with 44 variables regarding land, labor, capital and farming productivity. Using the resultant score of the principal component analysis, a pass analysis was conducted to identify the influence on income of farmers. The result shows a general increase in the income of farmers but the income gap is also widening during 2000 and 2007. Secondly, the production of high economic value grains and livestock has shown to influence the farmers' income in the pasture/agricultural area. Thirdly, the structure of agricultural production has been becoming increasingly complex in the pastureland area during 2000 and 2007. These results also suggest the importance of factors other than agricultural production, such as government grants, including ‘Ecological Migration' and ‘Cropland to Forest and grass' policies.
This study evaluates the spatio-seasonal patterns of river- and groundwater quality in the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, using the Nemerow-Sumitomo Water Pollution Index (WPI). The evaluation of water resources in Jakarta is very important because many residents still heavily depend on groundwater resources, which they extract by direct self-pumping; hence, continuous consumption of this water may introduce some health risks. The water quality is influenced by factors such as the seasons and the location relative to the pollution sources, so the quality may differ in time and space. To evaluate the water quality in the city, the Jakarta Environmental Management Board (BPLHD) conducted river- and groundwater sampling in July 2007 (dry season), November 2007 (early rainy season) and August 2008 (late dry season). During each season, 67 river water and 75 groundwater samples were collected from stations throughout the city, and approximately 32 biophysicochemical water parameters were measured at each station. The results show that the quality of both the river water and the groundwater was worse in the dry season and toward the northern region. This implies that the local residents should be aware of their consumption of groundwater in the northern region, especially during the dry season.
Since the early 2000s, the community forest management model (CFM) has appeared as a formal form of forest resource management in Vietnam. As a result, there have been many models piloted throughout the country, with the legal framework, policies and approaches have been continuously developing and improving. Therefore, the practical aspects of policy implementation at the community levels need to be further studied and evaluated, in which the estimation of potential timber benefits that will flow to communities is one of priorities. Thus, this study aimed at exploring the problematic issues related to timber benefits of CFM in a case study of central Vietnam, and analyzing the balance between costs of local participation and timber benefits for different time scales by the application of system dynamics. The research findings revealed that seven main sensitive factors are significantly influencing the actual and future net timber benefits of the local communities. Of the seven sensitive factors, the most sensitive factor is timber prices, followed by benefit rates, volume of timber, and breaking fraction. The lowest sensitive factor is harvestable conditions, followed by transaction activities, and harvesting rates. The running results of simulation model in different scenarios indicated that the local communities have to wait 25 years to let the poor reserve forests reach to harvestable conditions in case of actual conditions. It is 15 years and over 50 years in cases of advantage and disadvantage conditions respectively. In combination of poor and medium reserve forests, the total net benefit is positive value after 5 years of implementing CFM for all three conditions, and a big amount after 50 years in cases of actual and advantage conditions, about 607,068 USD and 660,351 USD respectively, while it is only about 52,666 USD in disadvantage conditions. In fact, how to maximize benefits and give chances of getting those benefits to the local communities, it requires the adjustment of polices related to types of forest to be allocated, harvestable conditions and benefit rates. At the same time, the local communities have to put more effort into forest protection and development activities otherwise they will only gain very low benefits from their forests. Moreover, assistance in terms of policies to help the communities realizing the working activities planned as well as technical and financial support in case of poor reserve forests are really needed.
After privatization of the land ownership in 1989, the landholding in Cambodia has changed by the cleaning / exchange / buying and selling. In this survey, having considered of the progress on the historic landholding based on the precedent studies. And clarified the present conditions of the landholding and the change after land privatization in 1989 based on-the-spot survey was taken place in 2008 and 2009 at Kampot prefecture Samroanleux ward. In addition, after looking through the precedent studies, I examined the reason behind the existence of the landless families. As a result, 87 households (14.3%) among the 608 households investigated have not own any farmland. The reasons behind it are medical treatments, daily necessities, paying debts and so on. However, as I examine the requital of debts here among the 209 households, 185 households debts to the bank is at an interest rate of 3% to 5% monthly. Those households in debts with their relatives or acquaintances are 9.6% which consist of 20 households. Lastly, high interests paid to informal money lender is at the least of 1% which only consist of 2 households. The result was different from the precedent studies which insisted that the informal money lending is the cause behind loosing the landownership. In my opinion, even using the formal finance route, after all economic conditions plus the hierarchy differentiation played an important part to it.