In this study, we estimated quantitatively the energy use in the food supply chain and its reduction by doing “Produce Locally, Consume Locally” (PLCL) and “Produce Seasonally, Consume Seasonally” (PSCS) through the investigation on the amount and the origin of the foods used in the Japanese style hotels in Kanzanji spa, which locates in the western part of Shizuoka Prefecture, and through the estimate of energy use for food supply for each food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, livestock, and fisheries). Moreover we analyzed the effect of PLCL on WTP (Willingness To Pay) for meal through questionnaire survey to citizens in Tokai district and visitors in Kanzanji spa.The results show first that the energy use in the production process is larger than that in the transportation process except for fruits, which shows the high import rate. PLCL was estimated to reduce the energy use by 8.0 ％, where PSCS was estimated by only 0.2 ％. Secondly, the results of the questionnaire survey shows that the meal is the most important object for the tourists, and it can be more attractive through PLCL. Tourists would pay for the meal consists of local foods which reduce the energy use for food supply more than the normal one.These results lead to the conclusion of this paper that PLCL and PSCS have good possibility to contribute to both promotion of reduction of environmental load and tourisms.
In this research, weighted overlay analysis tools in Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to carry out land suitability analysis for beetroot. Study area of this research is in up country of Sri Lanka (Land area 8,535 km2). This is the major vegetable growing area of the country. The suitability evaluation for beetroot (Beta Vulgaris) was based mainly on the method which described by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Climatic (temperature), soil (pH, texture, drainage, CEC, organic C,) and topographical (slope) factors were considered as important factors to identify the potential lands for beetroot. Average annual temperature (1961-1990 data), topographic, soil, and land use maps in the study area were used for the study. Crop requirement criteria were collected from literature review and from the Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka. Paper maps were scanned and screen digitized to prepare the thematic layers. Normalized Weighting Method was used to get the weight values for each factor. Finally, suitability maps were prepared according to the given criteria with four suitability categories namely, highly, moderately, marginally and not suitable. In the target area, 49.96% of lands were assigned as restricted for the analysis. According to the final suitability map, 7.47% of land was under highly suitable category, 31.55% of land was under moderately suitable category, and 11.02% of land was under marginally suitable category. However, according to the results, not suitable lands are not available parcel in the present study area. This study used the available spatial information for the identification of suitable area for growing beetroot.
Due to the aging of agricultural worker population, Japanese agriculture is relying on inexperienced young farmers. This study has been carried out to give them the appropriate information on the growth condition of the crops through remote sensing technique. Measuring system composed of two digital cameras, optical filters and brightness sensors was set in an agricultural rice field of Toyama Prefectural Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center through March to October of 2007. Seasonal change of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been calculated from the measured by the fixed-point digital cameras. Length, number of stems and SPAD value of the stems were measured about once a week throughout the measuring period. The NDVI calculated from the digital camera images showed rapid growth in the early growth periods of rice. This should be caused mainly by the oblique measurements by the cameras. Although the measurements by fixed-point cameras are very important as the “ground truth” experiments for comparison with the satellite data, it has been shown that we have to pay enough attention to the effects of the camera angles and so on. The digital camera images were converted into two dimensional frequency domain images by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The time dependence of the average pixel value in a specific frequency region has shown a similar tendency with rice length in the early periods of the rice phenology. This implies the importance of the fixed-point camera measurements for estimation of growth condition even with the frequency domain information other than the spectrographic results.
To evaluate the impact of human behavior (food consumption, human waste disposal and cultivation method) on nitrogen flow, a field investigation was conducted in 6 typical ecosystems of China, and various parameters were identified in the regional nitrogen balance model. The average per capita daily protein intake was 107 g. While there was no significant difference in total protein intake among the ecosystems, protein intake for all food groups except eggs did show a significant difference (P≦0.05). A difference in diet, alongside that in economic circumstances, reflected a difference in the characteristics and customs among ecosystems. With rapid economic growth, the rate of the organic recyclable nitrogen (e.g. human and animal wastes, agricultural byproducts) returned to the soil decreased, while the rate of that discharged into rivers increased. Regarding the annual per capita potential nitrogen load from human waste, there was a large difference between urban and rural regions; in urban areas approximately 1.02 kg N is returned to farmland and 5.49 kg N is directly discharged into rivers, while in rural regions approximately 4.33 kg N is returned to farmland and 1.60 kg N is directly discharged into rivers. Further, the most commonly used chemical fertilizers were urea and mixed fertilizers, and diversification of fertilizers was observed in wide areas of agricultural land with irrigation systems and that with paddy fields in plains. In the paddy field and oasis agricultural systems, many of the agricultural byproducts such as straw were generally burned, or mixed with base fertilizer and returned to the soil. In the irrigated agricultural system, over 70% of the agricultural byproducts such as wheat straw were recycled into livestock feed. In most instances, livestock excreta was reduced over time in the fields or pasturelands and occasionally abandoned in cases of large-scale breeding.
In an effort to appropriately manage and preserve grasslands, the application of species–area curves using the randomized-order method was examined for species diversity measurements. First, surveyed orders were permuted using repeated random number generation and, on average, a typical species–area relationship was generated. A power function model was then fit to the curves and three diversity indices were compared: minimal area ( Aa), species richness (Sa), and the appearance pattern (z) resulting from the model. We investigated Zoysia–dominated pastures to test simulations using several treatments and to compare methods. The results indicated that the randomized-order method produced highly precise species–area curves and that the effects of survey and stand area on the curves and indices were minimal. This method offers an improvement over species–area relationships generated from surveyed orders and over other species diversity indices, and is thus useful for evaluating species diversity in grasslands.
“Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Manure” was established in 1999 and implemented in 2004 in Japan in order to decrease pollution caused by livestock manure. After the implementation of this law many composting facilities have been established rapidly. However, it is not clarified how the distribution of compost has been changed by the implementation of this law. Therefore, in this paper, the change of the distribution of compost between 1995 and 2005 is estimated by the statistical analysis about supply and demand balance of livestock manure in village level in Hyogo prefecture, which is famous for promoting livestock industry. The result of this estimation shows that the recycling rate has increased from 39% to 58% in Hyogo prefecture. However, the increase of recycling rate is only from 23% to 39% in Awaji area, which is specialized for livestock industry. This implies that a lot of livestock manure is over-applied to farmland in this area. Consequently further political approaches are considered to be necessary to correct the oversupply of livestock manure.
We continued watching the level of water in Rokudoike, an irrigation pond in Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima Prefecture, for three years between fiscal 2004 and 2006. We studied the feasibility of allocating part of the capacity of the reservoir for catching rainwater to prevent floods. Firstly, upon presenting a formula for calculating the fill-up percentage from the observed water level, we calculated the fill-up percentage. Then, we subsequently examined how the volume of rainfall would affect the fill-up percentage. At times, the percentage dropped close to 50 in fiscal 2005 due to unusually small amounts of precipitation in the earlier half of the rainy season. In the three-year period, however, the fill-up percentage stayed at or above 70 on 86 percent of the days in the rainwater-harvesting seasons. It was obvious that the percentage of the capacity that was actually used for irrigation had decreased with the shrinkage of the size of workable rice-paddies. We decided to calculate what percentage of the capacity of the pond was usable for flood control instead of irrigation. In addition, we decided to apply the calculated percentage as a yardstick to manage the water level on June 1, when the rainy season began. The 73-day period up to August 12 was set for our study of how the fill-up percentage would drop with the discharge of water from the pond for irrigation. In the next step, we simulated changes in the percentage for the study period and decided on the minimum required fill-up percentage that should have been applied on June 1. Furthermore, for the dry ear that occurs once in 10 years, we evaluated the total amount of rainfall and the amount required to recover the initial fill-up percentage, and calculated the initial minimum required fill-up percentage for that hypothetical season. That leads us to the following conclusion. As expected, the pond can retain the minimum required capacity to prevent or ease floods downstream in addition to the capacity necessary to irrigate rice paddies. This conclusion allows for reasonable growth in size of the rice paddies in the future.
The Survey conducted with the following aims; 1) grasp the transition of the fishery utilization and the condition of the fishery management, and 2) understand the environmental condition of the coastal fishery area. Questionnaire, legwork, and checking the Acid-volatile-sulfide (AVS) of the sediment in the fishery area are conducted to understand the seasonal and spatial differences in the fishery environment and fishery management. Present aquaculture field are used be paddy field and fish corral ground. Paddy fields which located on the land or shoreline of the lagoon were altered into earth-pond aquaculture area, and fish corrals were changed into net-enclosure aquaculture fields. Acquirement processes of the right to use an aquaculture field were various (provided from commune authority, accession from family and relatives, purchase from other user and owner, and borrow from others). Amounts of the AVS in the sediment around the aquaculture area were increased with the start of culture season. Spatial difference about AVS amounts were also found, and some aquaculture area surrounded by many aquaculture ponds and net-enclosures were concerned the lack of oxygen. The place where was good for the tidal condition, AVS amounts especially super layer of the sediment was lower than other places. Lastly, the frequency of occurrence about the disease outbreak among the cultured fish and crustacean is getting higher than last 10 year. from the recognition of the fishermen observation.