Despite the difficulty in understanding English noun countability and its relevance to the use of English articles, research on noun countability has been rather sparse, and the results have not been integrated into a larger picture. Therefore, this study reviews previous research and summarises the criteria that Japanese learners use to make countability judgments: (1) a tendency to regard English noun countability as fixed, (2) a tendency to regard concrete or visualisable entities as countable and abstract entities as uncountable, (3) a tendency to regard something non-specific as uncountable and (4) a tendency to be unable to apply the idea of 'boundedness' when making countability judgments on abstract nouns. Finally, the reasons for the difficulty in deciding the countability of abstract nouns are discussed and the best and most practical way to cope with the difficulty is proposed.
The most recent theory of L2 motivation is Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System, which subsumes the ideal L2 self, the ought-to L2 self, and the L2 learning experience. Since it was developed in 2005, a lot of SLA researchers have been promoted to examine its external validity. However, almost all of the research was conducted in foreign language learning contexts, without considering second language contexts. To bridge this gap, the present study aimed to replicate Dörnyei's tripartite model in a Chinese population who were learning English as a second language (ESL) and thereby investigated its generalizability in this specific context. A questionnaire survey was completed by 405 Chinese-background students from five Canadian universities. Through analyzing the data by using SEM, it was found that the L2 Motivational Self System was generally applicable to the L2 learning context and the L2 learning experience showed the strongest power in explaining the motivation of Chinese ESL learners.
The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive activity regarding technology assessment thinking and thinking styles as in the case of humanoid robots. We extracted questionnaire data from 341 junior high school students. Data were analyzed from the viewpoint of the relationship between technology assessment and thinking styles, and which thinking factors effected a change in technology assessment. The result suggested that "leanings" thinking styles have a stronger influence on technology assessment thinking. In addition, the global thinking style seems to have more impact from a social point of view, and the local thinking style makes it easier to contemplate economic and ethical impact. The results of the analysis of opinion change were suggested that the negative assessments arose mainly from the concern around potentially negative human relationships with humanoid robots.
Since detergents have an environmental impact, it is important to select them based on a scientific understanding. Here, the primary goal is to make decisions by utilizing the viewpoint of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). Therefore, this research incorporated ESD and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) of instruction to examine the results of four experiments conducted by junior high school and university students: 1) the solubility, 2) the rinsing, 3) the detergency, and 4) the environmental impact. During the class, junior high school students evaluated Detergent "A" and Detergent "B." The results showed that the priorities of the two detergents were 0.43 for Detergent A and 0.57 for Detergent B, and these results showed no significant change before and after the class. For university students, the priorities of the two detergents were 0.19 for Detergent A and 0.81 for Detergent B, which showed a significant change after the class was conducted. Overall, this research proved to be an effective approach to understanding the scientific decision-making.
This paper describes how reading strategy instruction affects the reading strategy use and English ability of Japanese EFL college students. For 30 minutes of each class during the first semester of an English course, 45 lower-intermediate proficiency EFL college students were instructed in four major reading strategies: phrase reading, inferring referents, inferring unknown words, and understanding main ideas/summary. A reading test and a questionnaire to examine the frequency of strategy use were conducted before and immediately after the instruction. The findings revealed significant differences in frequency of strategy use between the instructed group and control group, although there was no significant differences in reading ability between them. Further analysis of instructed strategy use showed that frequency of inferring referents and identifying main ideas/summary had increased significantly. Other strategies such as activating background knowledge, paying attention to images/pictures, and grammar rules were also frequently used.