Whereas the order of adjectives is completely free in Japanese, this is not the case with English. Japanese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students at the university level experience great difficulty in identifying and producing noun phrases with correct adjective order in English. This study examined the effect that a brief period of intensive instruction on the rules of adjective ordering would have in improving student ability to correctly produce descriptive phrases. An adjective ordering task for noun phrases was administered both before and after the lesson to determine the extent that 81 Japanese students could correctly arrange three adjectives. The difference in average pre- and post-test scores showed dramatic improvement which was directly attributed to brief intensive instruction, underscoring its practical value in current pedagogical applications. However, neither previous awareness of, nor formal learning experience in English adjective ordering had an effect on improvement in EFL student ability to order adjectives.
In the transition from arithmetic to algebra, it is important to create a learning environment which develops the way in which students view mathematical expressions. This paper reports how students may develop their views through an expression constructing activity. We first constructed the activity from a viewpoint of substantial learning environment, next implemented the teaching experiment in a 7th grade class, and analysed the students' actual activities from a perspective of semiotic chaining. As the result of our analysis in terms of semiotic chaining, we identified four states of sign combinations and chaining for students' progress in their view of mathematical expressions, and discussed the important role of the use of brackets in viewing an expression structurally.
The present study investigated effective tasks for incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. The research was based on The Involvement Load Hypothesis presented by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001). The hypothesis is formed to compare one task with another task in terms of the effectiveness of L2 vocabulary tasks. They proposed the factors of Need, Search and Evaluation when words are processed incidentally and showed that tasks with higher involvement could lead to better vocabulary acquisition. The present study was designed to verify The Involvement Load Hypothesis, controlling the time constraint on tasks. The subjects of the experiment were Japanese university students learning English as an L2. There were two groups: a receptive task group with low involvement load and a productive task group with high involvement load. As the result, the latter demonstrated relatively better retention of the target word meanings, indicating that the task with higher involvement can be more beneficial to vocabulary acquisition.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an application of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) technologies on learning community emergence and students' identity construction in the EFL context. To this end, a web-based course management system called Moodle was used in a general English class at a college. Adopting a sociocultural approach, we had a qualitative examination of the data obtained from students' online discussions. Through the lens of Wenger's (1998) notion of Communities of Practice, we found that learners' online activities facilitated the formation of an online learning community, in which learners constructed their identities. Specifically, with the deepening of the online negotiation, the participants expanded their identities from "we" as students confined in an inconvenient town to "we" as members in the other overlapping communities of the broader context. Thus, they reached a new level of understanding and developed a new sense of self in the community.
The purpose of this study is to find out the preferred semantic formulas and the preferred sequences of them in refusal of suggestions corresponding to variations of Power and Cause by Japanese and Chinese EFL learners. For data collection, 37 Japanese and 36 Chinese college-level EFL learners and 22 native speakers of English completed a questionnaire with Discourse Completion Test. It was found that firstly, most participants of the 3 groups tended to utilize the provided external causes, rather than the internal ones for refusal. Secondly, the Japanese revealed a need for more semantic formulas for refusal. Thirdly, the use of the semantic formula Positive Evaluation or Agreement was affected by factors of Power and Cause. Finally, the sequence of semantic formulas Cause and Disagreement shared by the most Japanese and Chinese EFL learners was the reversed pattern preferred by the most native speakers of English.
Generally we can point out two different ways in introducing new kinds of numbers as follows. The first is to represent a result of measurement The second is to solve algebraic equations. Although the relation between these two ways might have been overlooked in any teaching situations, this can be didactically explicit in the teaching situation of irrational numbers from the conceptual change perspective. The purpose of this paper is to derive some didactical implications for a conceptual change situation by focusing on a knowing of "incommensurability" that can be an essential aspect of irrationals. For attaining this purpose, the epistemological considerations take place in three contexts: curricular contents, history and teaching experiment. In conclusion, three points as didactical implications are shown: 1) problematic situation regarding the representation of number; 2) eliminating the tendency to cling to the "concrete"; 3) shifting attitudes toward the mathematical knowledge.
The purpose of the present study is to provide insight into the nature of music education and the characteristics of the music curricula in China and Japan during the postwar period. It examines how music education has transformed from its function of ideological education during the Second World War and how the foundations of the music curricula were constructed in these two countries. This historical study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of Chinese music education from a comparative viewpoint Both China and Japan have placed emphasis on the acquaintance with music knowledge and skills, and advocated aesthetic education of music. However, in China musical curriculum appeared to be subject knowledge-centered while in Japan musical curriculum appeared to be musical activity-centered. Moreover, it is found that in China music education continued to play an important role in political education during the postwar period and the music curriculum lacks substantial content of musical aesthetics. It is found that the substantial difference between China and Japan may be the recognition of the nature of music which caused differences in musical curricula during the postwar period.
This research clarifies Korean elementary school and middle school science teachers' views about the aims of observation and experimental activities through factor analysis. One hundred and ninety-nine elementary school teachers and 105 middle school science teachers participated in the study. The 5-level Likert scale questionnaire with a total of 16-items was used. After the analyzing each item by the ceiling effect and the floor effect, the items were factor analyzed using principal axis factoring method (promax rotation). The results of factor analysis were as follows: (1) The factors about the aims of observation and experiment were 'attitude', 'concept acquisition through experiment' and 'design of experiment'. (2) The structure of factors was similar, but some items that were included in the three factors revealed difference in cases of the elementary school teachers and the middle school science teachers.