The present study reports the results of a comparative analysis performed on technology teacher curricula implemented in specialized institutions from Japan and Paraguay. Documentary research and interviews with key informants were selected as data collection measures and a qualitative version of the four step procedure developed by George Z. F. Bereday: (including description, interpretation, juxtaposition and comparison of research data) was applied as organizing framework. Results reveal common problems facing the training of technology teachers: the lack of specialized instructors, the broad diversity of contents, the costly infrastructure, the low rate of female students and the low status of the field as compared to other curricular areas. Contextual differences in social, historical, cultural and psychological conditions were found to influence structural features of the training; while a set of corresponding principles were identified directing formative efforts. Findings are expected to strengthen collaborative efforts to improve technology teacher preparation programs from a cross-cultural perspective.
The present study investigated the effect of using a computer dictionary and marginal glosses on incidental vocabulary learning. Hulstijn et al. (1996) conducted an experiment on a paper and pencil basis and found that marginal glosses were more effective for incidental vocabulary learning than dictionaries. The present study replicated Hulstijn et al.'s study on a computer basis and revealed that computer dictionaries were as effective as marginal glosses. It was found that the dictionary group tended to be better for frequently occurring words, while the marginal gloss group was better for less frequently occurring words. A detailed questionnaire was conducted to explore the reasons.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between individual English language teachers' autonomous discretion and their commitment to communicative language teaching practices. As a result, the following conclusions were reached: 1) the degree of freedom given to individual teachers for discretion in five areas of English language education differs from school to school, 2) teaching freedom and teaching autonomy should be conceptually distinguished, 3) teachers' autonomous discretion should be treated not in the individual sense but the collective or departmental sense, and 4) English language education should be considered as departmental activities where teachers of the English language department in individual schools autonomously work together on their school-based problems in order to deliver English language education and develop its quality.
Most of the developing countries are now engaged with enlargement of pupils' participation in school under the initiative of UNESCO (1990). And it also emphasizes the good quality of education which they receive at school. Bangladesh is also engaged with this task. Three major factors of education are pupils, teacher and teaching materials. So, this research sought to investigate on the quality of education, especially mathematics education from angles of both pupils and teachers, by focusing on conceptual understanding of the fraction as teaching material. As a conclusion, three points were found out as follows: (1) uneven distribution of weak areas for pupils, and this tendency is not uniform between urban and rural schools, (2) very few pupils were able to explain the sentence of problem, and this is a manifestation of rote learning without proper understanding, and (3) teachers' less attention to pupils' difficulty and understanding level. And therefore in future teaching method should be tailored according to their needs.