In this paper, I suggest a way of teaching the relative pronoun's functions both as subordinating conjunction and as pronoun. The experiment described in this paper makes it clear that most of the subjects who can comprehend and produce relative clause structures cannot distinguish between the relative pronoun "that" and the conjunction "that" which introduces the appositive clause. This supports a hypothesis that Japanese EFL learners tend to process the relative pronoun as a conjunction. It also suggests that to learn the relative pronoun's two functions, it's better if the learners first regard the relative pronoun just as a conjunction and later as a relative pronoun. On the basis of the result, I suggest what I think is a reasonable way of teaching the relative pronoun's two functions.
Predictabilities of sentence recall in listening comprehension were investigated. PLS (partial least square) regression analyses show that listening comprehension for summary and detail can be predicted quite highly by eight different types of sentence recall. What type of sentence recall is relatively important in predicting listening comprehension was also investigated.
This article aims at investigating the characteristic of Cambodian biology textbook for upper secondary school recently published. For the purpose, we compared Cambodian biology textbook and Japanese biology textbook. Outlining the background of textbook development in the context of Cambodia, the analysis is made concerning three points: whole content, students' activities and figures, which are described in the textbooks. The results are summarized as follows. Cambodian textbook should 1) refer to the relationship among phyla. 2) include genetics and development in Grade 10. 3) include appropriate experiments for the context of Cambodia. 4) illustrate some figures in students' activities. 5) provide accurate figures that are useful for actual students' activities. Based on the recognition of these problems, this paper attempts to make some suggestions for improving the textbooks.