Viewing from the shortly coming fossil-fuel shortage and the ecological standpoints against the air pollution and the violence of the nature-cycle, it is stressed that liquid hydrogen (LH2) is very important as the secondary energy, especially as the fuel and propellant of Vehicles. The physical and chemical properties of the LH2 provide the excellent propellant, especially, for the jet turbine and rocket engine. Some models of LH2-propellant engine hitherto developed in U.S.A are outlined. It must be an urgent necessary to promote the so called “hydrogen economy plan” of LH2 usage as the secondary energy, considering the powerful way of producing D which supports the nuclear fusion, too.
The design and construction of a superconducting solenoid to be used for gas laser spectroscopy is described. The solenoid was qualified to produce a field up to 60 kOe along the axial distance of about 30cm with the highest possible homogeneity. A computational recepie to determine the coil cross section which meets above requirement is given in §1. Here the least-square method was applied to determining the coil geometry, and was treated by the local linearization as to the given set of dimensional parameters. Following the dictates of digital computation we wound the Nb-Ti wire of 0.375mm diameter, 22km in one length with great care to uniformity of winding. The number of turns were 74x103, and the coil inductance was about 78H. The cryostat in which our solenoid was mounted yielded the room temperature space of 40mm clear bore along the horizontal solenoid axis. The details of wire winding process and the design of cryostat are described in §2 and 3, respectively. The performance test is described in §4. The relative inhomogeneity as measured by the proton NMR was less than 10-4 along the axial distance of 28cm. The crytical current was 32A. at which the field strength of 72 kOe was achieved.
A survey on vapor-cooled current leads for cryogenic apparatus is pre sented. The basic equation and its solving methods are shown. A tabulation is given of the experimental and calculated results obtained by many researchers. Some problems are discussed on the effect of cooling efficiency, purity of the materials, variable cross-section leads, the use of superconductors, cooling by the refrigerator, and removable leads.
Several types of pressure transducer which are applied to the cryogenic fluid are discussed. Magnetic field dependences of strain gauge type pressure transducers at low temperature were observed. An experience on dynamical pressure measurement of a cryogenic bubble chamber is also reported.