Background: Deterioration of hand motor function is a possible risk factor of cognitive impairment in older adults. Despite a growing body of research, a lack of clarity exists regarding the relationships. This review offers a synthesis of existing observational studies evaluating the associations of handgrip strength and hand dexterity with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults.
Methods: PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect were systematically searched (search dates: 1990–2016), and relevant articles were cross-checked for related and relevant publications.
Results: Twenty-two observational studies assessed the association of handgrip strength or hand dexterity with cognitive performance; none evaluated handgrip strength and hand dexterity together. Handgrip strength was associated with global cognition, mostly assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Also, one cross-sectional and three longitudinal studies found an association with cognitive domains, such as language, memory, visuospatial ability, working memory, and processing speed. Hand dexterity was only assessed cross-sectionally in four studies. These studies found an association with cognitive domains, such as executive function.
Conclusions: Although handgrip strength was associated with cognitive performance, it is unclear which variable at baseline affects the other in the long-term. Cross-sectional studies indicate an association between hand dexterity and cognitive performance, yet longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate this association. The interaction effects of both decreased grip strength and hand dexterity on cognitive performance is still unclear; therefore, future studies will need to consider the interaction of the three variables cross-sectionally and longitudinally.
Background: Foodborne norovirus outbreak data in Japan from 2005–2006, involving virological surveillance of all symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, were reanalyzed to estimate the asymptomatic ratio of norovirus infection along with the risk of infection and the probability of virus shedding.
Methods: Employing a statistical model that is considered to capture the data-generating process of the outbreak and virus surveillance, maximum likelihood estimation of the asymptomatic ratio was implemented.
Results: Assuming that all norovirus outbreaks (n = 55) were the result of random sampling from an identical distribution and ignoring genogroup and genotype specificities, the asymptomatic ratio was estimated at 32.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.7–36.7). Although not significant, separate estimation of the asymptomatic ratio of the GII.4 genotype appeared to be greater than other genotypes and was estimated at 40.7% (95% CI, 32.8–49.0).
Conclusion: The present study offered the first explicit empirical estimates of the asymptomatic ratio of norovirus infection in natural infection settings. The estimate of about 30% was consistent with those derived from volunteer challenge studies. Practical difficulty in controlling GII.4 outbreaks was supported by the data, considering that a large estimate of the asymptomatic ratio was obtained for the GII.4 genotype.
Background: Oxidative stress, the imbalance between pro- and antioxidants, has been implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of the incidence and mortality of many diseases. We aim to investigate the relations of dietary intakes of vitamin C and E and main carotenoids with all-cause mortality in Japanese men and women.
Methods: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk had 22,795 men and 35,539 women, aged 40–79 years at baseline (1988–1990), who completed a valid food frequency questionnaire and were followed up to the end of 2009.
Results: There were 6,179 deaths in men and 5,355 deaths in women during the median follow-up of 18.9 years for men and 19.4 years for women. Multivariate hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quintile intakes in women were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76–0.90; P for trend < 0.0001) for vitamin C, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78–0.93; P for trend < 0.0001) for vitamin E, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81–0.96; P for trend = 0.0006) for β-carotene, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82–0.98; P for trend = 0.0002) for β-cryptoxanthin. The joint effect of any two of these highly correlated micronutrients showed significant 12–17% reductions in risk in the high-intake group compared with the low-intake group in women. These significant associations were also observed in the highest quintile intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene in female non-smokers but were not observed in female smokers, male smokers, and non-smokers.
Conclusions: Higher dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins may reduce the risk of all-cause mortality in middle-aged Japanese women, especially female non-smokers.
Background: There is scarce epidemiological evidence regarding the relationships of the consumption of different types of vegetables or fruits with change in skeletal muscle strength. We prospectively examined the relationships among Japanese adults, using handgrip strength to assess skeletal muscle strength.
Methods: A 3-year study was carried out with 259 Japanese adults who were 22–68 years of age. The frequency of consumption of different types of vegetables or fruits were obtained using a validated self-administered dietary history questionnaire. Handgrip strength was measured with a handheld digital Smedley dynamometer.
Results: After adjustment for confounding factors, the mean change in handgrip strength in participants stratified according to the level of tomato and tomato product consumption at baseline were −3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], −4.0 to −2.3) for <1 time/week, −2.7 (95% CI, −3.6 to −1.8) for 1 time/week, −1.6 (95% CI, −2.5 to −0.8) for 2–3 times/week, and −1.7 (95% CI, −2.8 to −0.7) for ≥4 times/week, (P for trend = 0.022). However, the significant relationships of consumption of other types of vegetables and different types of fruits with change in handgrip strength were not observed.
Conclusion: Higher consumption of tomato and tomato product at baseline was significantly associated with reduced decline in handgrip strength among Japanese adults over a 3-year follow-up period. This study suggests that consumption of tomato and tomato product could be protective against the decline in skeletal muscle strength associated with aging.