Background: The popularity of heated tobacco products (HTPs) has been growing globally but, limited information exists on tobacco use behaviors and its impact on tobacco control. This study investigates awareness and perception of HTPs among tobacco users and whether perceptions of HTPs are associated with HTP use and intention to quit.
Methods: We invited 2,000 tobacco users aged 19–65 years with countrywide representation to an online survey in November 2018. Information on general characteristics, tobacco use behaviors, awareness and perception of HTPs, and intention to quit were gathered. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and ANCOVA were used for estimation of association and comparison.
Results: Among all tobacco users, 36.8% were classified as ever users, whereas 28.3% had used HTPs in the past 30 days, which was higher than expected. Users of liquid-based e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 1.578; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.210–2.056) and poly-product users (OR 2.029; 95% CI, 1.121–3.671) showed higher intention to quit within 1 month when compared to users of conventional cigarettes (CCs), whereas HTP users and dual product users did not. HTP users rated HTPs more favorably than CCs in terms of smoke, smell, harm, aid in quitting, design, and price than users of other products did (P-value < 0.001).
Conclusion: We find that positive perception of HTPs following strategic marketing from tobacco companies could have contributed to a greater increase in HTP use than expected in Korea. However, HTPs might not be considered substitutes for CCs for quitting tobacco use because a significant proportion of dual product users reported a lower intention to quit.
Background: Enhanced female labor force participation is raising the importance of grandparents’ caring for their grandchildren. However, previous studies have reported mixed results of the association between grandchild care and grandparents’ health.
Methods: Longitudinal data of 33,204 individuals born between 1946 and 1955 were collected from a 14-wave nationwide panel survey conducted from 2005 to 2018. We examined how caring for at least one co-residing grandchild aged <6 years was associated with grandparents’ psychological distress (defined by five or higher Kessler 6 score) and poor self-rated health in pooled cross-sectional, fixed-effects, and 3-year follow-up logistic models.
Results: While pooled cross-sectional models showed a positive association between grandchild care and grandparents’ health, the fixed-effects or follow-up logistic models did not find any significant association between them. In the case of grandmothers, the odds ratio of reporting psychological distress in response to caring for grandchildren was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–1.08) and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.85–1.27) observed from fixed-effects and 3-year follow-up models, respectively, compared to 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81–0.91) in the pooled cross-sectional model. Similar patterns were observed for self-rated health for grandmothers, while grandfathers’ health outcomes were not sensitive to grandchild care. These results contrasted with those of caring for parents, which had almost consistently a negative association with grandparents’ health.
Conclusion: The results suggest that caring for grandchildren does not have a beneficial or detrimental effect on grandparents’ health.
Background: The impact of body mass index on incidence of herpes zoster is unclear. This study investigated whether body mass index was associated with a history of herpes zoster and incidence during a 3-year follow-up, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan.
Methods: In total, 12,311 individuals were included in the cross-sectional analysis at baseline, of whom 1,818 with a history of herpes zoster were excluded from the incidence analysis, leaving 10,493 individuals. Body mass index (kg/m2) was classified into three categories (underweight: <18.5; normal: 18.5 to <25; and overweight: ≥25). To evaluate the risk of herpes zoster, we used a logistic regression model for prevalence and a Cox proportional hazard regression model for incidence.
Results: Being overweight or underweight was not associated with herpes zoster prevalence at baseline. The multivariate hazard ratios of herpes zoster incidence for overweight versus normal-weight groups were 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.51–0.90) in all participants, and 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.83) in women, with no significant difference for men.
Conclusion: Being overweight was associated with a lower incidence of herpes zoster than being normal weight in older Japanese women.
Backgrounds: The fatty liver index (FLI) is a good non-invasive approach for fatty liver disease diagnosis. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of nutrient patterns with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Japanese population.
Methods: A total of 1,588 subjects (789 men and 799 women) aged 35–69 years were recruited in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima Prefecture. Factor analysis was applied to energy-adjusted intake of 21 nutrients, and nutrient patterns were extracted. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between nutrient patterns and the high FLI category (≥60).
Results: Four nutrient patterns were extracted: Factor 1, vitamins, dietary fiber, iron and potassium pattern; Factor 2, fats and fat-soluble vitamins pattern; Factor 3, saturated fat, calcium, vitamin B2 and low carbohydrate pattern; and Factor 4, sodium, protein and vitamin D pattern. After adjustment for sex, age, and other potential confounding variables, higher Factor 1 scores were significantly associated with lower odds ratios of NAFLD (P for trend <0.05). Analysis of each component of FLI showed that there were significant inverse associations between Factor 1 scores and high body mass index and large waist circumference.
Conclusion: The present findings suggest that a nutrient pattern rich in vitamins, fiber, iron, and potassium was associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD in a Japanese population. Obesity and abdominal obesity may be intermediate variables for the association between this nutrient pattern and NAFLD.
Background: Little is known about the role of economic recessions in the risk of cancer. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of the severe economic recession in Finland from 1991–1994 on the incidence of all cancers and cancer subtypes among a middle-age and older population.
Methods: From the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD), a population-based sample of 1,620 women and men aged 53–73 years were examined from 1998–2001. The cancer-free participants completed a questionnaire on the possible impact of the 1990s recession in Finland on their lives. Incident cases of cancer were obtained through record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of incident cancer events after adjusting for possible confounders.
Results: A total of 1,096 cancer-free participants had experienced socioeconomic hardships due to the recession at the baseline. During 20 years of follow-up, 473 participants developed cancer. After adjustment for age, baseline socioeconomic position, and lifestyle factors, the risk of all cancers was 32% higher among men who experienced socioeconomic hardships compared to those who did not (HR 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.74, P = 0.05). Prostate-genital cancer was 71% higher among men with hardships (n = 103, HR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.74, P = 0.02). No association was observed between socioeconomic hardships and subsequent risk of total or any subtype of cancer among women.
Conclusion: The 1990s economic recession was associated with increased risk of all cancers, especially prostate-genital cancer among Finnish middle-age and older men, but no association with cancer was observed in women.
Background: Analyzing real-world data, including health insurance claims, may help provide insights into preventing and treating various diseases. We developed a database covering Shizuoka Prefecture (Shizuoka Kokuho Database [SKDB]) in Japan, which included individual-level linked data on health- and care-insurance claims and health checkup results.
Methods: Anonymized claims data on health insurance (National Health Insurance [age <75 years] and Latter-Stage Elderly Medical Care System [age ≥75 years]), care insurance, subscriber lists, annual health checkups, and all dates of death were collected from 35 municipalities in Shizuoka Prefecture. To efficiently link claims and health checkups, unique individual IDs were assigned using a novel procedure.
Results: From April 2012 to September 2018, the SKDB included 2,230,848 individuals (men, 1,019,687; 45.7%). The median age (min–max) of men and women was 60 (0–106) and 62 (0–111) years, respectively. During the study period, the median subscription time was 4.4 years; 40.8% of individuals continuously subscribed for the 6.5 years; 213,566 individuals died. Health checkup data were available for 654,035 individuals, amounting to 2,469,648 records. Care-service recipient data were available for 283,537 individuals; they used care insurance to pay for care costs.
Conclusion: SKDB, a population-based longitudinal cohort, provides a comprehensive dataset covering health checkups, disorders, medication, and care service. This database may provide a robust platform to identify epidemiological problems and generate hypotheses for preventing and treating disorders in the elderly.