This paper explores the features of the references cited in clinical practice guidelines. Two guidelines “Diabetes Clinical Practice Guidelines” and “Ovarian Cancer Treatment Guidelines” were selected. They had been revised three or more times, and the timing of these revisions was similar between the guidelines. The references in each version of each guideline were analyzed from three viewpoints: 1) year of issue and citation age; 2) continuation, addition, and deletion; and 3) research design. As the guidelines were formulated with an emphasis on evidence, there was a tendency for the citation age to be higher than that of the medical textbooks. When comparing the versions of each guideline, some of the later versions had lower citation ages than before they were revised. In the later versions, also, new and old citations were added and deleted, respectively, rather than just adding the new citations to those from the previous version.
In Japan, natural disasters are inevitable events, and thus, studies on countermeasures for earthquakes and tsunamis are of great importance. In this study, we modelled tsunami evacuation behaviour that covered from an occurrence of earthquakes to the completion of evacuation, with focus on information seeking behaviour, by applying Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA) to testimonies obtained from people who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake. The outcomes of analysis yielded 37 concepts in eight categories, and the tsunami evacuation process was grouped into four categories such as "decision-making on evacuation", "well-planned evacuation", "ill-planned evacuation", and "completion of evacuation". The assessments on the proposed evacuation behaviour process, we identified the importance of 1) increasing concrete vision and crisis awareness of tsunami, and 2) developing measures to accelerate an initiation of evacuation action, as facilitation of countermeasures for earthquakes and tsunamis.
The usefulness of the information by 238 local community FM broadcasting stations during disasters was reported by several papers and books, but some persons, such as the hearing-impaired or foreign residents, with limited access to information via radios exist. In this research, a questionnaire sent to community FM radio stations in Japan, and asked about the use of social media like Facebook at normal and disaster times and about information sharing to the hearing-impaired and to foreign residents. 146 radio stations out of 169 are using social media at normal times and 107 do so at the time of disasters. If the radio stations realize the possibilities of social media to share information to such people and the people realize the written information on social media, the radio stations could be new platforms to support a diversified society.