Journal of Japan Society of Energy and Resources
Online ISSN : 2433-0531
ISSN-L : 2433-0531
Volume 31 , Issue 1
Showing 1-6 articles out of 6 articles from the selected issue
Research Paper
  • Hiromi Yamamoto, Takashi Yada, Masakazu Nakamura, Kenji Yamaji
    Type: Research Paper
    2010 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 1-9
    Published: 2010
    Released: August 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a method for analyzing the relationship between economies and environmental issues. MFA is usually on the basis of weight unit. However, materials have a strong relationship with energy. Therefore, we intend to improve MFA by introducing the viewpoint of energy. In this study we define a concept of virtual energy of each material. Using the concept of the virtual energy, we evaluate the virtual energy intensity of fuels, major materials (such as steel, aluminum, copper, plastics, rubber, and glass), and automobiles that represent complicated goods. We calculate the virtual energy intensity of not only new goods but also wastes and used goods such as steel scrap and used cars. We also evaluated the virtual energy flow of the major goods including the wastes and the used goods between Japan and abroad. We consider the concept of the virtual energy is a powerful tool for energy flow analysis including wastes and used goods.
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  • Kazutomo Irie
    Type: Research Paper
    2010 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 10-15
    Published: 2010
    Released: August 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Germany, “nuclear energy phase-out” policy was adopted in 20 in order to promote renewable energy power generation. Until 207, Germany’s renewablenergy power generation has increased rapidly while its nuclear power generation has somewhat decreased. In that sense, nuclear energy phase-out has ben sucesful. However, Germany’s power suply structure in which fossil fuel thermal power generation centering on coal thermal has major share has hardly changed. Furthermore, the fossil electric power generation has increased as the entire electricity demand in Germany has expanded. It has brought the increased emission of carbon dioxide which is seen as the major cause of the global warming. On the other hand, the electricity price in Germany has risen not only in the absolute value but also in the relative position in international comparison. The high electricity price may be one of the heavy burdens to the German economy. Renewable energy and nuclear power should not be seen as rivals. Both energies can be promoted simultaneously.
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Research Papers Organized by the Topic:"Global Warming Mitigation Measures in Cities"
  • Masanobu Kii, Keigo Akimoto
    Type: Research Papers Organized by the Topic:" Global Warming Mitigation Measures in Cities "
    2010 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 16-22
    Published: 2010
    Released: August 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Urban policies towards compact cities and modal shift are considered as important mitigation measures for global warming. They are estimated to have a substantial impact on CO2 emission reduction from urban activities, which is derived by the change of behavior of urban entities like households and firms. This means the urban mitigation policies would affect on the level of happiness or quality of life of dwellers as well. The impact of urban policies, therefore, should be assessed regarding both CO2 emission and sustainability.
    This study presents the applicability of a land use-transport model for the urban mitigation policy assessment. First, we develop a model in which the behavior of urban entities like location choice/ daily trips of households and firms are explicitly formulated. Second, this model is applied to two urban policies, road pricing and land use control, to assess the long term impact on CO2 emission and sustainability. As a result, the developed model is verified, under assumed conditions, to have capacity for the assessment of urban policies regarding CO2 emission and sustainability consistently.
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  • Masahiro Hattori, Yoshikuni Yoshida, Ryuji Matsuhashi
    Type: Research Papers Organized by the Topic:" Global Warming Mitigation Measures in Cities "
    2010 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 23-28
    Published: 2010
    Released: August 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We estimate potential CO2 emission reduction in the freight sector by optimizing the physical distribution for the following two cases: the modal shift in the transportation and the change of the industrial structure to "local production for local consumption". The modal shift in the transportation can reduce CO2 emissions to 54 % compared with the present. The decrease in the transport distance can reduce CO2 emissions to 58% compared with the present. While minimizing transport cost shows the same trend, minimizing transport time does not contribute CO2 emission reduction. This paper also shows the relationship between physical distribution and industrial production by the conception of "derived physical distribution". The derived physical distribution is clearly different from that of present physical distribution when optimizing CO2 emissions in the case that transport distance can be changed. Combining the optimization analysis and the input-output analysis in the physical distribution, the optimized physical distribution can be depicted by visualizing industrial activities.
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  • Hongbo Ren, Weisheng Zhou, Ken'ichi Nakagami
    Type: Research Papers Organized by the Topic:" Global Warming Mitigation Measures in Cities "
    2010 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 29-37
    Published: 2010
    Released: August 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, as a supplement for conventional large-scale power generation system, distributed energy system has got much comprehensive attention. In this study, in order to realize a low-carbon society, a distributed energy system has been promoted by taking into consideration the integration of combined heat and power (CHP), biomass energy and photovoltaic technologies, for an urban area in China. As an illustrative example, an investigation has been conducted of feasible distributed energy system for civilian facilities in a model area of Huzhou city, China. By using a design and evaluation model, five scenarios with different technology combinations have been analyzed for optimal adoption and operation. According to the simulation results, although having reasonable environmental merits, it is hard to diffuse the distributed energy system, especially some renewable resources, in the model area from the economic point of view. Currently, the most feasible distributed generation technology is natural gas CHP system, which leads to a cost reduction ratio of only 0.7%.
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  • Yohei Yamaguchi, Kenjyu Akai, Junyi Shen, Naoki Fujimura, Yoshiyuki Sh ...
    Type: Research Papers Organized by the Topic:" Global Warming Mitigation Measures in Cities "
    2010 Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 38-44
    Published: 2010
    Released: August 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper evaluates policy measures implemented for diffusing photovoltaics and solar thermal system in terms of the contribution to CO2 emission reduction from the residential sector. We investigated the preference of consumers to these technologies as well as the influence of the attributes of these technologies, such as installation cost, energy price, energy efficiency and perception), on the consumer’s choice. Taking the influence into account, we developed a model estimating the diffusion of these technologies into the residential sector of Japan until 2025 and the resultant CO2 emission reduction. We found that policy measures for diffusion of photovoltaics that reduces initial cost (e.g. subsidy program) is more cost effective for reducing CO2 emission compared with those reducing operation expenditure of users (e.g. feed in tariff program), while the perception to solar thermal system must be improved so that the technology will deliver a considerable amount of reduction of CO2 emission.
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