The Journal of the Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy
Online ISSN : 2186-0149
Print ISSN : 0287-2137
ISSN-L : 0287-2137
Volume 17 , Issue 1
Showing 1-50 articles out of 97 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages App3-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages App4-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages App5-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Index
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages Toc1-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Index
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages Toc2-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 1-2
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Motoki Yano, Yosuke Yamakawa, Hiroshi Niwa, Kaoru Kondo, Satoshi Kondo ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 3-8
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    Recently endotracheobronchial stenting have been performed for the patients with tracheobronchial stenosis as well as tracheobronchoplastic operation, laser therapy, bronchoscopic dilation with bougie and balloon. The stents mainly used are silastic stents (Dumon stent etc.) and metal stents (Gianturco stent etc.) and silicone-metal combined stents. All of them require some improvement. The silastic stents are gentle to tissue, but secretions adhered to the inside of stents. The metal stents are small before dilation and easy to insert, but tumors and granulations grow through their filaments. The authors classify the tracheobronchial stents according to shape and materials and consider the advantages, disadvantages and the features of ideal stents.
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  • Hiroaki Matsuki, Jun Yatsunami, Yoichi Nakanishi, Nobuyuki Hara
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 9-15
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    To evaluate the clinical usefulness and safety of bronchography using non-ionic contrast medium mixed with 4% carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) solution, selective bronchography was performed in 10 patients. (bronchiectasis in 3, lung cancer in 4, hemoptysis in 2, blonchiolitis obliterans in 1). Iopamidol 370 mixed with a same amount of 4% CMC-Na solution was used for bronchographic contrast medium. The procedure provided diagnostic information in 9 of 10 cases. The quality of the results of the procedure was rated good in 10 patients, since the high viscosity of contrast medium prevented the rapid filling of the alveoli. The use of 4% CMC-Na solution provided proper viscosity that prevented alveolization. Transiet fever occured in only one case. In conclusion, the mixture of Iopamidol 370 and 4% CMC-Na solution appears to be a safe and effective contrast medium for use in bronchography.
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  • Shigeru Takeuchi
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 16-23
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A new model of artificial trachea has been tested. A cylinder made of knitted dacron, 5cm in length and 18mm or 20mm in diameter, was inner-coated with silicone rubber, at both ends, for a distance of 5mm in length, coating was not performed to leave them flexible for anastomosis. Fibroblasts, cultured from the skin of a mongrel dog, were suspended in a fibrin-glue solution, and coated onto the inner surfaces of the flexible ends of the dacron tube. Eleven dogs underwent mediastinal tracheal replacement by this hybrid artificial trachea graft through a right thoracotomy. The patency rate (area of the cut surface of a patent anastomotic ring/ area of the cut surface of the graft)(%) was measured regularly after surgery, through bronchoscopy or autopsy. The average patency rates at oral anastomotic sites was 80.5±23%(n=10) at 2 months after operation, 71.3±25.1%(n=7) at 3 months, and 68.9±34.3%(n=4) at 4 months. The caudal anastomotitic sites showed similar patency rates. Growth of granulation tissue at anastomotic rings was significantly less and slower in the experimental group than in the first model of hybrid artificial trachea in our laboratory, which had been prepared by fibrinogen and a scanty amount of fibroblasts. Seven out of 11 dogs are alive in good condition to date, from 2 to 7 months after surgery. Histological examination of the inner surface of the anastomotic sites of a graft in one dog at 7 months after surgery, revealed squamous epithelial lining on the surface of only a thin layer of granulation tissue. Although this favorable result has been brought about by both fibrin-glue and fibroblasts, I feel that the greater number of fibroblasts in this series are mainly responsible for the better results.
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  • Hiroaki Nomori, Hirotoshi Horio, Ryuichirou Kobayashi
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 24-28
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A Dumon stent was used in 5 patients with tracheobronchial stenosis, that is, 3 cases due to intraluminal tumor invasion and two cases due to granulation after tracheobronchoplasty. For the two patients with severe tracheal stenosis due to tumor invasion, bougienage using a tracheal tube and balloon dilatation during a period of one week made it possible to place the Dumon stent. Patency was obtained in one patient with granulation stenosis who underwent placement of a Dumon stent longer than the lesion. Another patient with granulation stenosis who underwent placement of a Dumon stent just beyond the lesion, however, suffered from recurrence of the stenosis at the central portion of the stent due to the growth of the granulation tissue. For cases with severe tracheal stenosis, bougienage by tracheal tube and balloon dilatation for a period in excess of a week can make it easy and safe to place the Dumon stent. For cases with granulation stenosis after tracheobronchoplasty, it is necessary to place the Dumon stent beyond than the lesion in order to prevent the recurrence of stenosis due to the growth of granulation tissue at the edge of the stent.
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  • Takehiko Fujisawa, Yutaka Yamaguchi, Yukio Saitoh, Yutaka Kawano, Nori ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 29-34
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A total of 21 cases with cicatrical or granulomatous stenosis in the trachea or bronchus were treated with Nd : YAG laser endoscopically and the results obtained were as follows. 1) Overall effective rate of endoscopic Nd : YAG laser treatment was 90% at the period immediately after the treatment, however, it decreased to 67% or 57% at 2 to 3 months or 6 months after treatment. 2) Six of 7 cases with cuff stricture had stenosis again after Nd : YAG laser treatment, and tracheoplasty and silicone stent placement were performed in 3 relatively young cases and in 3 cases that were either elderly or had low pulmonary function, respectively. 3) The effect of endoscopic Nd : YAG laser treatment maintained the airway in cases with polypoid or intermediate type stenosis and in cases with circumferential type stenosis extending longitudinally for 10mm or less, suggesting that such cases are good indication for Nd : YAG laser treatment. 4) However, endoscopic Nd : YAG laser treatment resulted in failure in all cases with circumferential type stenosis extending longitudinally for 21mm or more, indicating the necessity of additional modalities including surgery or stents etc., combined with laser treatment.
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  • Masahiko Takahashi, Shinichiro Shimai
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 35-39
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A 76-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on September, 1993 for evaluation of dyspnea on exertion. Physical examination revealed diminished respiratory sounds in the left lung field and right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Chest X-ray showed atelectasis in the left lung. Computed tomography revealed atelectasis in the left lung and subcarinal lymphadenopathy. Emergency bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial fleshy friable lesion projecting from the left side of the trachea and occluding the left main bronchus totally. Pathologically the tumor was diagnosed as follicular and diffuse mixed cell type lymphoma. Specimens from the right inguinal lymph node showed the same pathological findings as from endobronchial one. The patient was diagnosed as stage IIIB according to the Ann Arbor classification. Chemotherapy was initiated with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP), which resulted in resolution of her symptoms and roentogenographic abnormalities. After the fourth chemotherapy course, no tumor was found, and no malignant findings were observed in the specimen from left main bronchus. In its course, malignant lymphoma frequently involves intrathoracic structures. Although endobronchial involvement is not uncommon in Hodgkin's disease, it is rare in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a rare case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed by endobronchial involvement.
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  • Kenji Niitani, Takafumi Tsuya, Souichi Kitaguchi, Ken Okusaki, Takeshi ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 40-45
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of a left hilar shadow on chest X-ray. He had smoked 12 cigarettes/day for 50 years. Bronchoscopic findings showed obstruction of left B^6 with a tumor and polypoid lesion of the spur of left B^3. Histological study showed that both were squamous cell carcinoma. Since no metastasis was detected, left pneumonectomy was performed. The tumor in left B^6 was 4.5cm in diameter and was diagnosing histologically a differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Polypoid lesion in left B^3 was carcinoma in situ. None of the dessected lymph nodes were involved. We diagnosed this case as multiple primary lung cancer. We found a solitary bronchogenic papilloma in left B^8 of the resected lung. After two years laryngeal cancer was detected.
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  • Kazumitsu Ohmori, Masaaki Ohata, Mamoru Iida, Kazuo Kitamura, Takashi ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 46-52
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    We experienced two cases of tracheobronchial pleomorphic adenoma. This tumor is very rare in the tracheobronchial region. The first case was a 61-year-old male. He visited to our hospital for the treatment of esophageal cancer. After the admission, he complained of a hoarse voice and dyspnea. Bronchoscopy revealed a 3×2cm tumor about 1cm below the vocal cord. The tumor was resected through a tracheal incision without tracheal resection. The patiant died of esophageal cancer, two years and two months after the operation without recurrence of tracheal tumor. The second case was a 55-year-old female with a history of recurrent pneumonia. Bronchoscopy revealed a smooth surfaced tumor located in the left main bronchus. The airway was almost completely obstructed. Circumferential resection of four bronchial rings of the left main bronchus and reconstruction of the left main bronchus by end to end anastmosis were performed through median sternotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The paitient's condition is satisfactory 5 years after the operation.
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  • Hiromasa Kohno, Masayuki Baba, Tunehiro Takeda, Takahiro Ohtuka, Yasus ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 53-58
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A 41-year-old female with granular cell tumor in the left lower lobe bronchus was reported. She was admitted with fever and dry cough. Since her symptoms did not improve, fibroptic bronchoscopy was performed. The findings showed a tumor occupying the orifice of the lower lobe bronchus. Transbronchial biopsy of the tumor revealed a granular cell tumor. The tumor moved with respiration and seemed to have a stalk. The chest CT scan showed that the tumor did not invade beyond the bronchial wall. The tumor was removed with a wire snare via a fibroptic bronchoscopy and the residual tumor was cauterized with Nd : YAG laser. Seven months after the treatment, the base of the tumor was epithelized and no recurrence of the tumor was seen. Though granular cell tumor is a benign tumor generally, it has been reported that in other organs the tumor metastasized distantly and the histological findings showed malignancy. It is necessary to follow up such cases carefully.
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  • Kousuke Mori
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 59-63
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    Intratumoral injection of ethanol via a flexible bronchofiberscopy was performed effectively in a 64-year-old woman with obstruction of the left lower lobe bronchus caused by endobronchial hamartoma. She was admitted with a history of dyspneic sensation continuing for one month. Bronchofiberscopy revealed a endobronchial tumor obstructing the left lower lobe trunchus. Repeated biopsies showed no malignancy, but not definitive diagnosis was obtained. The obstruction was improved by several bronchofiberscopic intratumoral injections of ethanol, and the tumor was proved to originate from B^6. Left S^6 segmentectomy was performed with intraoperative diagnosis of chondromatous hamartoma. Intratumoral injection of ethanol is considered to be a promising endoscopic treatment to eliminate or reduse obstruction caused by endobronchial hamartoma.
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  • Masahiro Hirata, Toshiyuki Takesako, Yoshiko Sumi, Junko Hayashi, Yosh ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 64-68
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    We reported a case of a 72-year-old woman who had remarkable stridor due to a displaced bronchus with stenosis (trifurcation, right upper lobe bronchus). She was misdiagnosed by her home doctor as bronchial asthma. We established the correct diagnosis using by CT, bronchofiberscopy, bronchography and pulmonary angiography. It was the simple splitting off type displaced bronchus named by Foster-Carter. The stenosis in the right truncus intermedius was not due to a tumor or a scar due to inflammation. We conjectured that the stridor and dyspnea were emphasized due to massive sputum when she caught a cold or bronchitis, because her expectoration decreased with age.
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  • Utako Heki, Haruhiko Ogawa, Masaki Fujimura, Tamotsu Matsuda
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 69-74
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A 64-year-old man with bronchial asthma was admitted to our hospital because of dry cough. Chest X-ray film showed consolidation in the right upper lobe. Chest CT film showed central bronchiectasis and a branch like shadow. IgE-RAST and skin test were positive for aspergillus fumigatus. The was diagnosed as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on Rosenberg's diagnostic criteria. One month after the admission, dry cough and wheeze deterorated and a new shadow developed in the right lower lobe. TBLB was performed and the diagnosis was eosinophilic pneumonia. Both the airway symptoms and the shadow were promptly following with beclomethasone dipropionate (800μg/day) inhalation therapy. This case suggests that steroid inhalation therapy may be effective for ABPA.
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  • Masayuki Mizuguchi, Koichi Nishi, Tokunao Amemiya, Takio Ohka, Hiroshi ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 75-79
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A case of broncholithiasis excised by bronchofiberscopy using biopsy forceps was reported. A 52 year old female was admitted to the course of our hospital for detached examination of hemoptysis. She had previously suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchofiberscopic examination revealed complete obstruction by yellowish-white materials in the orifice of left B^4. We attemped bronchoscopic excision of the materials and succeeded in removal using by conventional biopsy forceps without bleeding. After the excision bronchi peripheral to B^4 were found to be intact without perforation or thickening of the bronchial wall. Histological examination demonstrated a broncholithiasis with stratified the calcification and suppuration. Chest roentogenogram showed scattered calcification in both lung fields without hilar lymph node calcification, Moreover CT scanning revealed no hilar lymph node calcification, and there was no perforation of bronchial wall of left B^4. Therefore, its origin was considered to be retained bronchial mucus with infection.
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  • Tokunao Amemiya, Koichi Nishi, Masayuki Mizuguchi, Takio Ohka, Hiroshi ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 80-86
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    We report a rare case acute responded idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), who to treatment with corticosteroids, but developed acute exacerbation after a second bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). A 67-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis and diabetis mellitus was admitted on November 8th, 1993, for detailed examination and treatment of cough, dyspnea and abnormal lung shadows. The chest X-ray film on admission showed hazy densities in both lung fields. Though the administration of diuretics, antibiotics, and oxygen were not effective, pulse therapy with methyl-predonisolone (1g/day in three days) was effective. After the 2nd pulse therapy course, BAL was performed again. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed findings of interstitial pneumonia. We diagnosed this case as acute type IIP. After the 2nd procedure BAL, she complained of severe dyspnea, and hazy densities in both lung fields progressed worse. In spite of extensive treatment including corticosteroid therapy, she died of respiratory failure due to acute exacerbation of IIP. Though acute exacerbation of IIP after BAL is a relatively rare complication, when it dose occurr, it may become a fatal complication as in the present case. It is nesesarry for carefully decide on indication of BAL in patients with acute type of IIP.
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  • Hisami Yamakawa, Nobumasa Sato, Fumio Yamagishi, Tsunehiro Takeda, Tak ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 87-91
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A 68 year-old male received antituberculosis drugs for tracheobronchial tuberculosis. In April 1993, stridor and dyspnea increased. Chest X-ray tomography and bronchofiberscopy revealed localized stenosis of the lower trachea with scar, 2.5 centimeters in length. Segmental resection and anastomosis of the trachea was performed on July 26, 1993. Pathological examination of the resected trachea revealed destruction of two tracheal cartilages. After operation, dyspnea disappeared and the pulmonary function improved from 0.68 to 2.11 L in FEV1.0 and from 2.70 to 6.32 L/sec in PEFR, respectively. Rare cases of tuberculous tracheal stenosis were treated only by segmental resection, such as our case with localized stenosis due to destruction of cartilage.
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  • Usio Yazaki, Shinya Murakami, Yoshihiko Arano, Makoto Nagao, Yoshinobu ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 92-96
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    A 62-year-old male had undergone right upper lobectomy 3 years previously for early hilar squamous cell carcinoma of the lung originating from the orifice of B^1. He was discharged from the hospital without undergoing adjuvant therapy. While he developed a second primary lung cancer 22 months later, which was suggested to be squamous cell carcinoma by sputum cytology. Bronchofiberscopy detected a polypoid mass which obstructed the orifice of right B^6. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and right S^6 sleeve segmentectomy was performed, because of pulmonary insufficiency. The postoperative course was uneventiful and the patient is surviving over 6 months after the second operation with no sign of recurrence. It was concluded that minimal pulmonary and bronchial resection should be attempted in selected patients with early stage hilar lung cancer.
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 97-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 97-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    Download PDF (185K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 97-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 98-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 98-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 98-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 98-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 98-99
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 99-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 99-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 99-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 100-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 100-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (203K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 100-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (203K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 100-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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    Download PDF (203K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 100-101
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 101-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 101-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 101-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 101-102
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 102-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 102-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 102-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 102-
    Published: January 25, 1995
    Released: October 01, 2016
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