Objectives The final evaluation of the Japanese government's Healthy Parents and Children 21 project in 2014 noted an increase in low birth weight infants as an aspect that worsened. In order to reduce the number of low birth weight infants, miscarriages, and stillbirths in Kurume City, we conducted a survey aimed at researching new measures, including the search for new risk factors of birth complications.
Methods The participants of this study were 2,986 pregnant women who submitted a pregnancy notification form in 2014. We excluded women who moved away from Kurume city or for whom birth weight records could not be obtained. Information from the pregnancy notification form was linked to birth weight records to examine the relationships between low birth weight infants, miscarriages, stillbirths, and pregnancy attributes. Variables that were shown to be related in an initial univariate analysis were analyzed further in a multiple logistic regression analysis with low birth weight, miscarriage, or stillbirth as the response variables.
Results A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that being 35 years or older (odds ratio [OR]: 1.41), height less than 158 cm (OR: 1.45), non-pregnant body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 (OR: 1.48), and detection of physical abnormalities by a physician during the pregnancy (OR: 2.20) were independent maternal factors that were significantly associated with low birth weight. Being aged 35 years or older (OR: 2.05) and smoking (OR: 3.42) were independent factors that were significantly associated with miscarriage and stillbirth. In addition, the cessation of alcohol use (OR: 0.51) significantly reduced this risk.
Conclusion Because some biological factors such as “age” and “non-pregnant BMI” are invariable, we encourage pregnant women to get checkups to detect abnormalities early or to attend birthing classes that offer mental support, especially for pregnant women over 35 years. We want to tell young generations that pregnant women over 35 are at an increased risk of having low birth weight infants, miscarriages, and stillbirths, and those pregnant women with a lower BMI have an increased risk of low birth weight infants. “Maintenance of appropriate body weight,” “smoking,” “alcohol,” socioeconomic issues such as “lack of systems for seeking advice and support staff,” and “financial concerns” can be improved with health education from public health nurses and multidisciplinary support interventions. At the Children Care Support Center in Kurume city, professionals work together to provide continuous support to families during pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. As a result, we may be able to contribute to reducing the number of low birth weight infants, miscarriages, and stillbirths.
Objectives This study aimed to examine methods of providing information to improve the recognition of people with developmental disorders by comparing recognition of developmental disorders among education and health care professionals within the general public.
Methods A cross-sectional internet-based survey was conducted in January 2016. The subjects were Japanese adults aged between 20 and 69 years. Of all the respondents, 418 were males and 424 were females. The questionnaire was used to assess recognition of the names of developmental disorders and to determine the corresponding methods through which the information was obtained. We analyzed cognitive states by classifying the respondents by occupation (education and health care professionals) and by whether the subject had a developmental disorder or was a family member or friend of a person with a developmental disorder separately.
Results The percentage of respondents that reported having heard about developmental disorders was 91.5%. However, only 26.5% reported having provided some form of support to people with developmental disabilities. The percentages of education and health care professionals who were aware of developmental disorders were close to 100%; however, only 63.9% and 42.9%, respectively, could cite how they had become aware of developmental disorders. With regard to the sources of information on developmental disorders, the most frequent answers were television and radio programs (67.1%), followed by the internet. Of all the respondents, 11.3% had heard about developmental disorders in a school setting and 9.9% had heard about the disorders in the workplace.
Conclusion To increase understanding of developmental disorders among education and health care professionals, basic and in-service education must be improved. Furthermore, it is important to provide information on developmental disorders through the media.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between home environment and long hours of internet use among Japanese elementary school and junior high school students.
Methods We used data from the Survey on Parent-child Relationship in the Internet Age conducted by the Japanese National Institute for Youth Education in 2017. In the analysis, 2062 children between fifth grade of elementary school and second grade of junior high school from 20 prefectures in Japan were retained after excluding 210 children with no internet use. Exposure variables included children's ownership of internet devices (e.g., smartphones), parents' ways of using a mobile phone or smartphone at home, and the child's relationship to his or her parents. Outcomes were long hours of internet use on a weekday and a weekend day and experiencing a lack of sleep. We defined long hours as three or more hours on a weekday and five or more hours on a weekend day. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression analyses.
Results Children's ownership of a smartphone or tablet was associated with long hours of internet use and experiencing lack of sleep. Compared to non-owners, adjusted odds ratios for smartphone owners were 2.55 [95%CI: 1.92-3.38] for long hours of internet use on a weekday and 1.66 [95%CI: 1.17-2.34] for lack of sleep. Spending long hours on the internet on the weekend was associated with parents using mobile phones while talking to their children [OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.03-2.44] and children who do not enjoy being with family [OR=2.05, 95%CI: 1.00-4.18]. Additional analysis showed that situations such as parents' frequent use of mobile phones during talking, family members' frequent use of mobile phones even during family time, and not enjoying being with family were associated with not setting rules for children's use of mobile phones and personal computers at home.
Conclusion Our findings suggest that factors such as ownership of devices and the ways parents use their mobile phones are associated with children's hours of internet use at home. To create an environment where children use internet appropriately, parental practices regarding mobile device use and rule setting at home may be important.