Objectives This study aimed to determine the association of marital relationships with pregnant women's obstetrical history, physical and psychosocial factors, and characteristics of women and husbands from the perspective of adaptation to pregnancy. Moreover, it sought to offer suggestions regarding support for couples during pregnancy in urban areas.
Methods We distributed self-reported questionnaires to pregnant women who participated in antenatal classes, organized by Public Interest Incorporated Foundation A, in four designated cities in the Kansai region of Japan. We investigated women's obstetrical history, physical and psychosocial factors, and characteristics of women and husbands using the Japanese Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (Relationship with Husband) (J-PSEQ). Of the 778 women, 413 (53.1%) responded. After applying the exclusion criteria, 388 participants were eligible for analysis (valid response rate: 93.9%). Based on their J-PSEQ scores, participants were divided into two groups: poor marital relationship and normal or good marital relationship. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to the quality of marital relationships from the perspective of adaptation to pregnancy.
Results Based on the J-PSEQ scores, 93 (24.0%) participants were categorized into the poor marital relationship group, and 295 (76.0%) were categorized into the normal or good marital relationship group. For the poor marital relationship group, the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratios (confidence intervals) for “pregnancy after infertility treatment,” “easily angered and irritated,” and “husband's health: somewhat poor” were 2.54 (1.38–4.66), 3.55 (1.86–6.78), and 3.54 (1.06–11.87), respectively. Women who described household finances, husbands' working conditions, and lack of support to be the most stressful factors were more likely to have poor marital relationships. The factors associated with normal or good marital relationships included women experiencing physical discomfort, women not engaging in Satogaeri Shussan (staying at women's parents' homes before and after birth), husbands taking paternity leave after childbirth, and husbands having good health.
Conclusions This study revealed that the factors associated with poor marital relationships in terms of adaptation to pregnancy were pregnancy after infertility treatment, anger and irritation in women, and poor health of husbands. Healthcare professionals may need to focus more closely on supporting such couples in urban areas during pregnancy.
Objectives Though having a high salt taste threshold has been associated with hypertension, its exact determinants remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the determinants of salt taste threshold in a community-based population and to determine the relationship between salt taste thresholds and the simultaneous presence of multiple determinants.
Methods Of the 1,117 participants of the baseline survey of the Kobe study, a cohort study of healthy urban residents, aged 40–74 years, with no history of cancer or cardiovascular diseases, nor undergoing treatment for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, was conducted. Among them, 1,116 underwent the salt taste threshold test, and urine samples were collected to determine their estimated salt intake. The salt taste threshold test was carried out using SALSAVE®, with a salt taste threshold of 0.6% defined as normal, and that of 0.8% or more defined as high. A binomial logistic regression model was used, with high salt taste threshold as the objective variable, and life and family status, education, smoking and alcohol drinking status, intake status of salt dried fish, stress indicators, and daily salt intake (estimated from the urine sample) as the explanatory variables. A binomial logistic regression analysis was conducted, through multivariate analysis using the forced entry method, with factors influencing salt taste threshold as explanatory variables, and salt taste threshold (normal/high) as the objective variable. This analysis was performed excluding the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio to account for multicollinearity with the estimated daily salt intake.
Results The mean age was 60.9±9.0 years for men, and 58.0±8.7 years for women. The salt taste threshold was normal in 80.9% (n=903) of the participants (73.6% [n=251] men and 84.1% [n=652] women), and high in 19.1% (n=213) of the participants (26.3% [n=90] men and 15.9% [n=123] women). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking habits were significantly associated with a higher salt taste threshold, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.51 (1.33–4.74) for all participants. The odds ratio for a high salt taste threshold was 1.45 (1.03–2.03) for the top 25% estimated daily salt intake group, showing a significant association with a high salt taste threshold. In the analysis by sex, smoking habits were associated with higher salt taste thresholds, while an association with estimated daily salt intake was observed only in men.
Conclusion Smoking status and estimated daily salt intake were associated with higher salt taste thresholds in healthy urban residents.
Objectives As the birthrate declines and the population ages, increase in the number of older adults certified as requiring long-term care and shortage of care staff are important issues to be considered. This study developed a sub-staff training program that trains community residents as sub-staff (paid auxiliary staff who possess knowledge and skills in care prevention and confidentiality) to provide care for enhancing independence of older adults with the support of staff in day-care facilities. The study also examined the program's feasibility and key factors, through the introduction of practical examples and surveys, for implementation in care prevention projects of local governments.
Methods The four-month training program included lectures on care prevention and provided job training to ensure participants understood the goals and contents of the care plan and learnt to provide care services with the assistance of facility staff. The training program was conducted at 14 facilities in Tokyo and Chiba from 2015 to 2017. The evaluation focused on the completion rate, change in understanding of care prevention and confidence regarding activities at the facility and in the community, participation in community activities after program completion, the psychological impact on care service recipients, and the perception of workload reduction by the facility staff.
Results A total of 96 out of 104 participants completed the training program (completion rate of 92.3%). The survey results showed that participants' confidence in activities at the facilities and understanding of care prevention increased significantly; 65.3% participated in new community activities after program completion, including activities at the facilities. The results of the survey of care service recipients showed that negative psychological effects did not increase among those who received care services from the participants compared to those who did not receive care from participants. Among the facility staff, 85.7% indicated that their workload had reduced after the community residents' participation in care services.
Conclusion The training program improved participants' confidence in care-related activities and their understanding of care prevention. More than half of them engaged in new community activities afterwards. Participants' provision of care services had a less negative impact on the service recipients and led to a reduction in workload for the facility staff. These results suggest high feasibility of the training program for care prevention projects.