An American psychologist, Csikszentmihalyi, defined a mental state which is called “Flow.” Flow is the state in which an individual feels deeply involved and focused. Csikszentmihalyi proposed 8 mental states which include the flow as a flow model. In this study, subjects were asked to provide psychological self-reports, based on Experience Sampling Method every time they were engaged in an activity which lasted more than 30 minutes and we aggregated their activities into 18 categories, and also examined their subjective experiences. We carried out factor analysis and cluster analysis to divide those data in 8 psychological states based on Flow theory. Collating the result of the clustering and the responses to the psychological self-reports, the data which clustered into “Flow,” “Apathy,” or “Control” were especially reasonable. In addition, other psychological state clusters were generally reasonable. Focusing on the cluster named “Flow,” those activities matched to the answers that subjects mentioned in the self-reports which asked them when they would be in flow. Therefore, the result of this study appears to be reliable and it suggests that the method used for this study can apply to monitor mental health trend of people on a daily basis.
Exotropia disturbs stereopsis development, especially in children, by causing diplopia or its inhibition in the binocular vision system;thus, treatment must be administered early. However, intermittent exotropia often relapses after surgery. Although the angle between the visual lines of both eyes is correlated with relapse, no significant difference is observed in this angle between patients with and without relapse. Since the visual lines are not parallel but form an angle even in non-patients, this angle is not directly related to diplopia. Herein, we quantitatively measured the binocular parallax degree in the visual field, and verified its significance to distinguish between patients with and without relapse. In the normal binocular vision system, the 3D point gazed at is projected onto the fovea of each eye by ocular convergence. The other 3D points around the gazed point are projected onto different positions on both retinas to generate retinal images with a binocular parallax. The 3D points with sufficiently small binocular parallaxes constitute Panum’s fusional area, wherein retinal images fusion causes depth perception by stereopsis, whereas retinal images of other 3D points with larger binocular parallax are observed doubly without binocular fusion. Ocular convergence is insufficient in binocular vision systems with exotropia;thus, binocular parallax should be larger for retinal images of 3D points corresponding to Panum’s fusional area of the normal binocular vision system with sufficient ocular convergence. Thus, herein, the binocular parallax degree for both eyes with exotropia is estimated for points included in Panum’s fusional area of the normal binocular vision system gazing at different points. The estimated binocular parallax degree for upward gazing exhibits significant differences between patients with and without exotropia.
This paper presents the final report of the Committee for Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Monitors Standardization (2018-2020). This committee organized meetings to draft standards for international organizations. At the meetings, cardiovascular physicians, policymakers, and professionals working in digital medicine and healthcare gave advice. We discussed the aims, scope, and clinical evaluations of cuffless blood pressure monitors, summarizing the basic concepts and generating a new proposal. The factors considered included the intended use, static and dynamic accuracy, and long-term stability and validation of cuffless blood pressure monitors. The standards of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electric and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) were followed, and current Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for cuffless blood pressure monitors were reviewed. We discussed existing standards and proposed new ones for cuffless blood pressure monitors. Our proposal will compliment ISO standards for cuffless blood pressure monitors.