Journal of Welfare Sociology
Online ISSN : 2186-6562
Print ISSN : 1349-3337
Volume 14
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Masayuki FUJIMURA
    Type: oration
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 5-24
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     The theme of this presidential address is to reconsider research on welfare

    sociology in terms of sociological theory and social sciences. From the 1960’s

    onward, welfare sociology made an appearance with the emergence of factors

    of ascription, such as gender, generation, disability, ethnicity, in society which

    achievements are valued. We place welfare sociology, which examines inner

    human nature, in contrast with environmental sociology, which considers external

    human nature.

     We consider low birth rate and aged society, risk society, globalization to be

    three modern social change. To analyze these phenomena, we provide several

    sociological framework on the rise and fall of middle-range groups, the perspective

    of the relation of economy and society, the resource allocation model( selfhelp,

    reciprocity, redistribution, market exchange), the social placement of relationships

    (intimacy, cooperativity, publicness, marketability), and the problem

    of the relation between norm and desire as the origin point of social science.

    Finally, with regard to welfare sociology in the 21st century, we have to consider

    the relation between individual life and global world, welfare society and inclusive

    society as ideal models, and the nature of the field’s contact with public

    sociology.

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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 27-35
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Kohei INOSE
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 37-49
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     In recent years, collaboration between agriculture and welfare projects has

    attracted attention and horticultural therapy and employment of people with

    disabilities has been conducted in various places. At this time, emphasis is

    placed on producing new project and people with disabilities is understood as a

    consumer. However, I would like to claim importance to decompose contradiction

    brought by modernization. The current research focuses on the Minuma-

    Tanbo Welfare Farm, in Saitama, whose activities I help manage. The farm

    where people with and without disabilities work together, began with flood control

    and environmental conservation policy. It didn't begin with neither agriculture

    nor welfare policy. As a process of decomposition, I will describe the interaction

    of a variety of human actors in and out of Minuma-Tanbo in relation with

    land policy as seen in relation to the local history of development in the Tokyo

    metropolitan area and life history of the person working in the farm.

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  • Tatsuya SHIRAHASE
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 51-64
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     Until World War II, Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) have been played the

    main role in the field of Japanese social welfare. After WWII, the social welfare

    became state responsibility. After that, religious groups in Japan tended to be

    excluded from the field of social welfare. However, from the late 1970s until today,

    the State’s role in the field of social welfare has changed drastically in the

    background of the crisis of welfare state. In this context, FBOs started to re-participate

    in the field of social welfare, in particular newly emerging social issues

    such as homeless problem. Some groups are very active in missionary work in

    supporting homeless people. On the other hand, some groups rather separate its

    missionary work and homeless support. In this paper I focus on FBOs that supporting

    homeless people. Also I clarify the social roles of them by using Four

    Quadrant Matrix of FBOs Activities.

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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 67-73
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (667K)
  • Kuniyuki TERADA
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 75-94
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Previous literature on migrants and welfare states tends to focus on the problem

    of the sustainability of welfare states under the pressure of globalization

    and regard migrants only as those who bring welfare states to a crisis, as a burden

    and risk factor for the welfare system. Recent studies have started to challenge

    this perspective by shifting their focus from state to migrant. Since Diane

    Sainsbury’s seminal work on migrant poverty, scholars have started to look not

    on the effect international migration has on the welfare budgets but on the effect

    welfare sates have on migrant welfare. Especially, they have started to examine

    what makes the cross-national differences in terms of migrants’ poverty

    rate as well as the difference between citizens and migrants in terms of their

    poverty rate. This article summarizes the results of the recent empirical literature

    about migrant poverty in EU countries from the perspective of citizenship

    studies and tries to make clear what hypotheses have been proved to be true to

    what extent. It argues that the effect of integration policies upon migrant poverty

    has not been examined so far and tackles this question by utilizing a recently

    developed integration policy index. It then proposes that future study should

    explore the relationship among three policy fields — immigration, citizenship

    and integration — and examine which is the most decisive factor of migrant

    poverty.

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  • Naoko TOMIE
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 95-119
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     In 1918 the populace in Japan rose up in protest against soaring price of rice.

    They condemned unscrupulous rice merchants and the government, demanding

    for reasonable price of rice. The clamor of people for rice escalated into nationwide

    riots, commonly called the rice riots.

     After the riots, popular movements, including the universal suffrage movement

    and the labor movement, developed rapidly and it was said that 1918 rice riots

    brought a new phase in the history of the popular movements for the citizen’s

    rights.

     The advent of a new age after the riots, of course, did not emerge directly

    from rioters’ clamor for rice. The question we should ask is what meanings were

    attached to the riots.

     Intellectuals who advocated democracy in the press interpreted the significance

    of the rice riots in line with their political campaigns. They argued that

    the rioters tacitly demanded the rights to participate politics. Peoples’ outcry for

    rice was interpreted as de facto quest for citizenship.

     The purpose of this paper is to investigate into the notions of “right to live” in

    the discourse on the rice riots. For that purpose, this paper analyzes how the

    intellectuals interpreted the riots. Two different notions of “right to live” can be

    seen in the discourse on the rice riots: moral economy in early-modern Japan

    and citizenship in modern Japan. In the discourse of intellectuals, the former

    gave way to the latter. As it were, the way to the “right to live” of modern society

    began with the rice riots, and concurrently the legitimacy of the “right to

    live” of traditional community came to the termination.

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  • Jiro MORITA
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 121-143
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     This article discusses the activities in “free schools” (unauthorized schools for

    long-term absentee children) and the recent attempt of institutionalization of

    free schools, and examines the pros and cons of such institutionalization, as

    well as the mechanism of social exclusion / inclusion processes with free

    schools.

     The findings are as follows: regarding the mechanism of social exclusion / inclusion,

    free schools, in the name of child-centered approach, attempts to flexibly

    include non-attendee children, both as a place for learning and as a place

    for approval, while those schools remain outside the regular school system. At

    the same time, in current states, free schools do not provide regular school diplomas.

    Also, children from low income households are often excluded from

    these free schools.

     As for the pros and cons of institutionalization, as reviewed in this article, the

    supporters of free schools have actively been lobbying for a new bill to enforce

    diversify of learning opportunities since 2015. Through reporting their personal

    learning plans, non-attendee children will be offered regular school diplomas in

    compulsory education as well as certain amount of public subsidy, regardless of

    their age or nationality. Therefore, their citizenship regarding the right to enter

    school (the right to learn) will be enhanced in its range and contents. However,

    both the promoters and opponents of this bill are disregarding the risk of increase

    in benefit gap for different social classes. Therefore, an emphasis on

    measures to correct such gap will be important, when we discuss multiple-layers

    of school inclusion.

     The article suggests the potential of pluralistic social inclusion process, which

    have been overlooked in the existing researches on transition or on social policy,

    that is, the importance of “a place one can belong to (ibasho)” to guarantee

    the right to rest and relativize the values of meritocracy.

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  • Shoki OKUBO
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 147-167
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper clarifies the determinants of early turnover rate in care workers

    and verifies the effect of The subsidy for improvement of the benefits of the

    care staff which was introduced in October 2009. Since the elderly has been ever-

    increasing while care workers is a chronic shortage, the biggest problem over

    the care workers is a shortage of human resources due to high early turnover

    rate. Given the rise of future care labor demand, it is a pressing issue to elucidate

    the determinants of early turnover rate and to clarify whether the past policy

    intervention had the effects on early turnover rate. By analyzing a largescale

    survey of care workers in Japan, we found the following four points. First,

    the determinants of early turnover rate are different between the regular and

    non-regular workers. Second, the determinants of early turnover rate and turnover

    rate are different both for regular and non-regular workers. Third, the effect

    of The subsidy for improvement of the benefits of the care staff on early

    turnover rate is limited.

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  • Yui SATO
    Type: research-article
    2017 Volume 14 Pages 169-191
    Published: May 31, 2017
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     These days, the concept of “hope” has attracted attention in social sciences.

    This paper aims to explore how the concept of “hope” has influenced the discussion

    about “needs” in the field of social welfare, especially focusing on the

    realm of support for elderly. Concretely, this paper analyzed two kinds of materials,

    one is earlier studies over “needs”,“demand”, and “hope”, and the other

    is governmental documents published around 2000 when long-term care insurance

    system launched. We can see the transition of focus on discussion in the

    field of social welfare, from the difference between “needs” and “demand” in

    the first half of 1990s, to the relationship of “needs” and “hope” after 2000. On

    introducing long-term care insurance system, the government reports say, people

    should respect elderly’s “hope” and “their own lives” to protect their “dignity”.

    There are seen the new point of view other than conventional concept of

    “needs”.

     Compared to the concept of “demand”, the concept of “hope” which could be

    the base of self-determination, is suitable for the idea of “support for self-help”

    and “protection of dignity” put up in long-term care insurance act. To find one’s

    “hope” is indispensable to construct rapport at the level of micro practice. On

    the other hand, macro policy theory should have other criteria of assessment

    than “hope”, not to overlook the presence of social minority who really require

    welfare support. Therefore, it has still an important meaning to discuss the

    “needs based on social judgement”. Introducing the concept of “hope” enables 

    us to make the range of “needs” more clear in the field of social welfare.

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