THE MICROMERITICS
Online ISSN : 2432-2075
Print ISSN : 0429-9051
ISSN-L : 0429-9051
Current issue
Showing 1-34 articles out of 34 articles from the selected issue
Front Cover
Editorial Board
Contents
Foreword
Special Subject: Forefront of fundamentals and applications of advanced powder processing
  • Mojtaba GHADIRI, Shuji MATSUSAKA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 3-12
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Powder processing and manufacturing operations are rate processes for which the bottleneck is cohesive powder flow.  Diversity of material properties and sensitivity to environmental conditions, such as humidity and tribo-electric charging, make its prediction very challenging, but highly desirable particularly when addressing a powder material for which only a small quantity is available.  Furthermore, in a number of applications powder flow testing at low stress levels is highly desirable.  Characterisation of bulk failure for flow initiation (quasi-static) of such powders is well established. However, bulk flow parameters are all sensitive to the speed with which the powder is sheared, but in contrast to quasi-static test methods, there is no shear cell for characterisation of bulk flow parameters in the dynamic regime.  There are only a handful of instruments available for powder rheometry, in which the bulk resistance to motion can be quantified as a function of shear strain rate, but the challenge is relating the behaviour to the physical and mechanical properties of the constitutive particles.  A critique of the current state of the art in rheometry of cohesive powder flow is presented, reviewing features of a number of widely used instruments.

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  • Toshitsugu TANAKA, Kimiaki WASHINO
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 13-19
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Nowadays, Discrete Element Method (DEM) is widely used to study the phenomena concerning granular materials or powders or to develop and to optimize granular facilities and processes. When DEM is used, the spring constant in the contact force model of DEM is often reduced to reduce the calculation time or calculation cost. However, it has been pointed out that the reduction in the spring constant largely changes the agglomeration behavior of cohesive particles. When one uses the technique of reducing spring constant, it is required to understand the physics of particle-particle interaction. In this article, the way of thinking to use the technique of reducing spring constant is presented based on the authors’ previous studies.

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  • Kazuhiro MAE
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 20-28
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Mixing in micro space is categorized into two concepts: rapid mixing and precise diffusion control. In this paper, the methodology for designing nanoparticles was summarized based on these mixing concepts. First, the synthesis of TiO2 nano-particles by double-tube microreactor developed was introduced. It was shown that a precise diffusion control by designing a micro space had a significant effect for individual strict control of nucleation and particle growth processes. Next, the micro mixer, so called K-M mixer, was introduced as a typical micro mixer for strict control of nucleation process. The performance of K-M mixer on the processing of nanoparticles was demonstrated by introducing several examples; production of monodisperse nanoparticles of metal and organic matter, core-shell particle synthesis, alloy catalyst particle synthesis, high efficiency synthesis of MOF, and so on. The results shown here clearly indicate that microreactor technology will be a powerful tool for nano-processing. Finally, I discussed how to use the microreactor as a production technology.

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  • Keiko SASAKI, Kojo Twum KONADU
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 29-36
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Graphitic refractory gold ore was sequentially pretreated to oxidize sulfides by thermophilic archaeon Acidianus brierleyi and then to decompose carbonaceous matters using the cell-free spent medium (CFSM) from a white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The pretreatment by A. brierleyi significantly improved the gold recovery from 25% to 77%. Additionally, the crude lignin-degrading enzymes in the CFSM converted the carbonaceous matters into more easily degradable substances, which were removed by alkaline washing, leading to a final gold recovery of 92%. These mineralogical alterations were confirmed by differential thermogravimetric analysis and quantitative evaluation of minerals with scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, gold grains were mostly liberated after bio-oxidation of sulfides, and in following CFSM treatment, large particles of carbonaceous aluminosilicate were formed from the aggregation of clay minerals, gold grains and with partially decomposed carbonaceous matters acting as binders.

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  • Yoshisada KAYANO
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 37-43
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Calcium carbonate with nano-level “particle control” and “surface treatment” is used as functional filler in various applications, and it provides excellent rheological properties especially to sealants and adhesives. However, the mechanism related to the high viscosity and its control method were unknown. Therefore, in order to clarify the mechanism for high viscosity of the sealant and adhesive in which the calcium carbonate particles are dispersed, the viscosity of confined liquid plasticizer between the surfaces imitating the particle surface of calcium carbonate is measured using shear resonance measurement system. Then, it turns out that the mechanism for high viscosity of calcium carbonate is a unique mechanism different from other materials (fumed silica and organic thickeners), so I will introduce it in detail.

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  • Kohei HOSOKAWA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 44-50
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Spheronized natural graphite has been used as the anode of the LIB secondary battery to improve its energy density. Hosokawa Micron Group provides equipment and processes to spheronize the natural graphite, but it cannot be well explained by the prevailing spheronization mechanisms. In the presentation, along with the history of spheronization equipment and their working mechanisms, a new phenomenon model will be introduced and elucidated.

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Review Article
  • Kizuku KUSHIMOTO, Shingo ISHIHARA, Junya KANO
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 51-60
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Wet ball milling is a kind of methods grinding particles by collisions of balls in a slurry. It has been used for producing the raw materials, intermediate-products and end-products because it has features as high versatility, high grinding performance and easy to increase the size of equipment. However, the grinding by the wet ball milling has been operated without enough understanding grinding mechanisms because it is difficult to observe and analyze grinding processes. Thus, analyses by using a simulation have been introduced in order to understand the grinding mechanisms. In this paper, we introduced two examples. One example is that the behavior of particles around the balls in liquid was analyzed by the simulation method coupling DEM with CFD. The other example is that the simulation method for representing the dynamic and breakage behavior of particles around the balls in liquid was developed.

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  • Yuta SUGII, Takahiro SUZUKI, Aiko SASAI, Hiroyuki TSUJIMOTO
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 61-66
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In functional cosmetics, nano-DDS (Drug Delivery System) is used to improve the permeation of the active ingredient into the skin and pores. A typical example is a liposome composed of phospholipid molecules. We have focused on the nanoparticle technology using the biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) developed by Professor Kawashima of Gifu Pharmaceutical University and applied to functional cosmetics since 2004. PLGA nanoparticles have the characteristics of (1) permeability to the stratum corneum and pores, and (2) sustained release of encapsulated active ingredient. In this paper, we will introduce the effectiveness examples using PLGA nanoparticles for acne and other skin problems inside the pores and hair growth on the head and eyelashes.

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  • Daisuke KOYAMA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 67-75
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Acoustic radiation force is a static force generated by a difference in the acoustic energy densities of two media. Small objects can be levitated and transported by acoustic radiation force in an acoustic standing wave. The present paper introduced noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects: linear transportation over a long distance, transportation in a circular trajectory, and two-dimensional transportation. In these techniques, the ultrasound vibration of a plate and the sound pressure distribution can be controlled by the electric input to piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, enabling the control of positions where the objects were trapped. The configuration of the systems can be determined by finite element analysis, and the acoustic field and the transportation trajectory of the manipulated objects can be predicted by the theoretical equation of the acoustic radiation force. These techniques are expected to be applied to not only product lines for precise electronic components and tablets but also a manipulation of powder, liquid, and cells in the field of biotechnology.

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Technical Note
  • Tomoyuki CHIBA, Kohei HOSOKAWA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 76-83
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Conical Paddle Dryer (CPD) is the newest of batch dryer developed by Hosokawa Micron B.V. (the Netherlands), one of our overseas group companies. The CPD was developed based on a mixer called Conical Paddle Mixer (CPM) developed by Hosokawa Micron B.V. The CPD is an application of the CPM which has a basic structure for high-speed dispersion, high-precision mixing, and uniform mixing in a short time. Nauta Mixer ®, which is a batch-type mixer representing our company, is also used as a batch-type dryer by mounting a jacket and a heater trace, and has a large number of delivery records. The CPD is not a high-end model of Nauta Mixer ®, but is a model with a different concept with high-speed dispersion and high-precision mixing performance, and it is necessary to select the model according to the required performance.

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  • Shoichiro TAGAWA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 84-89
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    By using the in-process particle sizer IntelliSizer® (Xoptix Limited, WR14 3SZ England), it is possible to automatically perform measures such as background judgement and data error at the site where the operator was involved, and to minimize the operator’s intervention at the site. Moreover, it is possible to automatically optimize the operating conditions of the machine using the measurement results of the particle size distribution. The measurement result of the particle size distribution is almost the same as the off-line measurement, and can be stably measured even in a long operation. Particle size distribution measurement by the IntelliSizer® is designed to enable efficient particle size check of product lines.

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  • Sachi FUJITA, Tomohiro KITAMURA, Kenji MURATA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 90-96
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Recent developments in information communication technology and data science are bringing about major changes in our lives. In the industrial sector as well, the movement toward transformation called the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 is accelerating, and the introduction to plants is being considered. In order to meet the needs of such industries, we have started providing HOSOKAWA GEN4® as a total IIoT service.

    HOSOKAWA GEN4® contributes to the improvement of process productivity by collecting the operation and product data using sensors and analyzing the collected data by machine learning. In this article, a concrete example of a system to which HOSOKAWA GEN4® is applied and a proposal of an optimum operating condition by machine learning is reported.

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  • Masayoshi KAWAHARA
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 97-101
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Mechanical Particle Composing Machine can change the physical, chemical, electrical and optical properties of the powder singly or multiply to develop different properties than the initial one and used by over 100 users in various fields as a useful particle design tool. The feature is that the mechanical energy is effectively applied to the powder particles themselves. This report describes the transition of the device and the future prospects.

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  • Takahiro SUZUKI, Aiko SASAI, Hiroyuki TSUJIMOTO
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 102-106
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, the needs of cosmetic products possessing anti-wrinkle effects are rapidly increasing, and the cosmetic products appealing its efficacy sell well. Since the target site of the active ingredient for anti-wrinkle is in the deep part of the skin, the problem is how to break through the stratum corneum, which is biological barrier, and deliver the ingredient to the target site. The PLGA (Poly-Lactide-co-Glycolide Acid) nanoparticle that we developed has DDS (Drug Delivery System) function such as excellent permeability to the stratum corneum and slow release of encapsulated content in the particle. By using this technology, the anti-wrinkle ingredients can be easily delivered deep into the skin.

    In this paper, we introduce the test result of the anti-wrinkle effect by using PLGA nanoparticles.

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New Products
Business Overview
  • Powder Processing System Division, Hosokawa Micron Corporation
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 113-115
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Hosokawa Micron Corporation is a manufacturer of powder processing machinery and the Powder Processing System division is the department responsible for sales and engineering. We usually conduct trials for each project to meet the various needs of customers and find the best possible system. This time, we will introduce our test center which is for carrying out trials for the design of the powder processing systems from a laboratory scale to production scale. It should be noted that we have evaluation facilities to analyze results of each trial in real time to help conducting the trials. Using our experience and knowhow over 100 years, we will be developing the innovative technology to assist producing new industries.

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  • After Sales Division, Hosokawa Micron Corporation
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 116-118
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    After sales Division is engaged in sales and repair of parts, alteration of machinery and system improvements in order to solve the issues about powder processing. Our main purpose is providing the best solution in order to develop a trust relationship with clients as well as by increasing the number of alterations that are tailored to customer specifications, we build trust relationship with customers. Our domestic branch is located in Osaka, Tokyo, Nagoya, and Shimonoseki and also, overseas branch is located in Thailand for following-up of SEA clients. Experienced engineers provide a fast response to enquires and deliver skilled reliable repaires and maintenance services for a single piece of equipment or your full process line.

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  • Toll Processing Division, Hosokawa Micron Corporation
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 119-121
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Our Toll Processing business responds to customer’s specific production needs under strict quality control, based on various experiences and know-how in powder processing technologies that Hosokawa Micron Corporation has cultivated for over 100 years.

    Our business mission is to support our customers’ business opportunities with a variety of powder processing, such as small-scale test process for research and development, bridging production process until equipment operation, and mass production process that replaces production lines.

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  • Material Business Division, Hosokawa Micron Corporation
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 122-124
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Material Business Division possesses advanced PLGA (Poly-Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticle technology having DDS (Drug Delivery System) characteristics. The PLGA nanoparticles proposed and provided by us have already been applied to not only drug formulation but also cosmetics, quasi-drugs, medical devices such as stent and balloon catheters. Since 2004, we have launched to sell both a functional skincare cosmetic brand “NanoCrysphere®” and a hair-care brand “NanoImpact®” with the PLGA nanoparticles. Currently, we are also promoting OEM productions and sales for various types of unique cosmetics such as powdery serum and eyelash serum etc., utilizing our PLGA nanoparticle technology.

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  • Hosokawa Micron Cosmetics Corporation
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 125-127
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Hosokawa Micron Cosmetics launched a new hair restorer, Co17 on July 17. Based on the latest hair growth research (Reduced generation of type 17 collagen is responsible for thinning hair), we have improved the performance of our PLGA nanoparticles as follows; 1. High concentration of nanoparticles (100 trillion particles → 120 trillion particles), 2. Extension of release time of the component included in the nanoparticles from 12 to 24 hours, 3. Three kinds of new ingredients such as burdock extract added (45 kinds in total). We will develop sales promotion that appeals to these.

    Additionally, in the second year after appointing the former major leaguer Keiichi Yabu as an image character, we increase awareness for sports fans who would be interested in the hair growth agents.

    In the cosmetics business, sales of the eyelash serum are strong as eyelash cosmetic solutions. Starting the information transmission using SNS such as Instagram from 2019, we are implementing measures to lock in customers hoping them to become our fans. We are planning to further expand sales promotion in the future, such as increasing the number of customers via WEB.

    Overseas, we are currently developing a cosmetic business in Thailand. It is sold mainly in Bangkok, in drug stores such as Matsumoto Kiyoshi and high-end department stores such as Isetan. We are currently expanding to 50 stores.

    By providing general consumers with the products that utilize the world-class nanoparticle technology of the Hosokawa Micron Group, we will continue to conduct research on a daily basis with the motto of being a company to improve the quality of life (QOL) in their social life.

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  • Wagner-Hosokawa Micron Ltd.
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 128-130
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Hosokawa Micron has been importing and selling powder coating machines that use environmentally friendly “Powder coatings” since 1979 from German company “Wagner”. In 1997, Hosokawa Micron Wagner was established as a joint venture company with Wagner. Powder coating is not only safe because it does not use solvents, but it is also a highly promising coating field where over sprayed paint (unpainted) can be recycled.

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  • Hosokawa Micron (Shanghai) Powder Machinery Co., Ltd.
    2020 Volume 63 Pages 131-132
    Published: December 15, 2019
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A full-fledged business expansion to Mainland China started in November 1990 when the Hong Kong branch office was established. Shanghai Rep Office was opened in 1997 and a couple of years later, several offices were merged into one main office in Shanghai. In 2005, Shanghai Rep Office was changed to a legal entity under the name of Hosokawa Micron (Shanghai) Powder Machinery Co., Ltd. and since then business has been expanding year by year together with a rapid growth of Chinese economy. As of today, there are 26 people working at the office including 2 people from Japan. Customers are located in almost all provinces of China and the various kinds of machines have been used in the wide range of applications in chemicals, minerals, foods and pharmaceuticals. We continue to make every effort to provide customers with the state-of-art technology of Hosokawa Micron Group as well as an excellent aftermarket service.

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