Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the Rehabilitation Activity Time score (RATs)—a score based on the level and duration of rehabilitation activities—of ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and activities of daily living (ADL) dependence at discharge.
Methods: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated patients aged >18 years who underwent mechanical ventilation in the ICU for at least 48 h. The patients were categorized into the low- and high-dose rehabilitation groups based on the median RATs. The primary outcome was the rate of ADL dependence at discharge, defined as a Barthel index of <70. The association between low or high doses of rehabilitation and the primary outcome was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by baseline factors.
Results: The rate of ADL dependence at discharge was significantly lower in the high-dose rehabilitation group (low dose 81% vs. high dose 22%, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed a significantly lower ADL dependence at discharge among those who received high-dose rehabilitation (P<0.001). Increased RATs during the entire ICU admission period and during ICU admission after meeting the criteria for physiological stability was significantly associated with lower ADL dependence at discharge (P<0.001). Moreover, a higher RATs from low-level activity before meeting the criteria for physiological stability also showed a significant association with lower ADL dependence at discharge (P=0.047).
Conclusions: ADL dependence was significantly lower among those who underwent high-dose rehabilitation. The RATs was consistently associated with ADL dependence at discharge.
Objectives: The Balance Exercise Assist Robot (BEAR) is a boarding-type robot developed to improve users’ balance performance. However, the exercise load experienced by users of the BEAR remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the exercise load of BEAR users.
Methods: Recruited healthy participants were fitted with an expiratory gas analyzer, and instructed to control the avatar displayed on the computer monitor by shifting their weight on the BEAR. Three types of activity (tennis, skiing, and rodeo) were prepared for the BEAR, and the difficulty of each activity had 40 levels. Each balance exercise for each level lasted for 90 s. The BEAR was administered at levels 1, 5, 10, and then up to 40 in steps of 5 for each activity. The major parameters that were evaluated were oxygen consumption (grossVO2, netVO2), metabolic equivalents (METs), and heart rate (HR). Two-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s post hoc test was applied to each level of each activity.
Results: Fourteen healthy participants were recruited. For the rodeo activity, netVO2 and MET values were significantly higher than those for tennis and skiing at level 20 (tennis vs. skiing vs. rodeo: netVO2 114.0±59.7 vs. 160.6±71.1 vs. 205.6±82.9, METs 1.47±0.22 vs. 1.72±0.37 vs. 1.90±0.29) and higher. Furthermore, comparisons within activity types showed that at level 40, netVO2 and MET were significantly higher than for level 1. The exercise intensity was found to increase along with the exercise level for all three activity types, with rodeo being the highest at 2.74 METs.
Conclusions: The current findings show that the BEAR can be used for balance practice without generating excessive cardiopulmonary stress.
Objectives: The objective of the present study was to compare the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the gluteus medius on the affected and unaffected sides to assess long-term changes after total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Methods : The data for 23 women who were diagnosed with unilateral hip osteoarthritis and who underwent primary THA via the posterolateral approach were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic data of the patients and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association hip scores were obtained from medical records. The CSA of the gluteus medius was measured on computed tomography images obtained at three different time points: preoperatively, 3 years postoperatively, and 8 years postoperatively.
Results: The CSA of the gluteus medius on the affected side was significantly greater than the preoperative value at 3 (P<0.005) and 8 years postoperatively (P<0.001). The mean increase in the CSA relative to the preoperative value was 24.0% at 3 years and 37.5% at 8 years postoperatively. There was no significant change in the CSA of the unaffected side at any time point. The CSA of the gluteus medius was significantly smaller on the affected side than on the unaffected side preoperatively (P<0.001), 3 years postoperatively (P<0.001), and 8 years postoperatively (P<0.003).
Conclusions: Because the gluteus medius is important for achieving stability when walking, it is important to maintain or increase the CSA of the gluteus medius by regular or long-term rehabilitation interventions (such as maintaining abductor muscle strength) from the early stages of osteoarthritis and to provide guidance on effective training both before and after THA.
Objective: The Modified Parkinson Activity Scale (M-PAS) is used to identify the most important activity limitations in patients with Parkinson’s disease. We developed a Japanese version of the M-PAS and evaluated its reliability and validity.
Methods: Twenty-five patients with Parkinson’s disease (median age 71 years old, range 58–83) were enrolled, and two raters used the Japanese version of M-PAS to assess the subjects. The inter-rater reliability was evaluated using Cohen’s weighted kappa coefficient for the total score and three domain scores; systematic error was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis. Concurrent validity of the Japanese M-PAS was measured using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients.
Results: Cohen’s kappa coefficients for the total score and the three domain scores were in the range 0.81–0.98, and 95% confidence intervals included zero for each item, suggesting excellent agreement and no systematic errors. The scores of the Japanese version of M-PAS were significantly correlated with the scores of the Movement Disorder Society–Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part II (Spearman’s rho=–0.56, P <0.01) and Part III (Spearman’s rho=–0.32, P <0.01). The percentage of patients with the highest and the lowest scores in the Japanese version of M-PAS suggested no ceiling or floor effects.
Conclusion: The Japanese version of M-PAS showed excellent inter-rater reliability and good concurrent validity without ceiling or floor effects.
Objective: This study investigated the potential utility of computed tomography for outcome prediction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
Methods: Patients with putaminal and/or thalamic hemorrhage for whom computed tomography images were acquired in our hospital emergency room soon after onset were retrospectively enrolled. Outcome measurements were obtained at discharge from the convalescent rehabilitation ward of our affiliated hospital. Hemiparesis was evaluated using the total score of the motor component of the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS-motor; null to full, 0 to 25), the motor component of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor; null to full, 13 to 91), and the total length of hospital stay. After registration of the computed tomography images to the standard brain, the volumes of the hematoma lesions located in the corticospinal tract were calculated. The correlation between the corticospinal tract lesion volumes and the outcome measurements was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation test.
Results: Thirty patients were entered into the final analytical database. Corticospinal tract lesion volumes ranged from 0.002 to 4.302 ml (median, 1.478). SIAS-motor scores ranged from 0 to 25 (median, 20), FIM-motor scores ranged from 15 to 91 (median, 80.5), and the total length of hospital stay ranged from 31 to 194 days (median, 106.5). All correlation tests were statistically significant (P <0.01). The strongest correlation was for SIAS-motor total (R=–0.710), followed by FIM-motor (R=–0.604) and LOS (R=0.493).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that conventional computed tomography images may be useful for outcome prediction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
Objectives : Vertebral compression fractures are common among older people. Currently, knowledge of the effects of early rehabilitation treatment on the recovery of activities of daily living (ADL) in older patients who receive conservative treatment for these fractures is limited. Using the instrumental variable (IV) method, we examined the effects on ADL at discharge of a delay in initiating rehabilitation treatment.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database were analyzed. The subjects were patients with vertebral compression fracture who had undergone rehabilitation treatment during their hospitalization between 2014 and 2019 in one of the 29 acute-care hospitals in Yamagata Prefecture. We analyzed data from 1706 patients (mean age, 82.1 years). The independent variable was the number of days between hospital admission and the start of rehabilitation treatment, and the outcome was the Barthel index (BI) score at discharge. An IV method was applied, with adjustments for covariates, including demographics and functional status at admission.
Results: Most patients started rehabilitation treatment within 3 days of hospital admission. Our IV method showed that the interval between hospital admission and the start of rehabilitation treatment was significantly associated with the BI score at discharge. The coefficient was −2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.06 to −0.35).
Conclusions: A delay in initiating rehabilitation treatment had a negative effect on ADL at discharge. This result emphasizes the importance of including early rehabilitation treatment in acute care, as recommended by several existing guidelines for the treatment of orthopedic diseases.
Objectives: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) are skeletal dysplasias associated with premature osteoarthritis and short stature. Patients with SED often have spinal and ocular problems. Few reports have focused on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with skeletal dysplasias associated with premature osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRQoL of adult patients with MED and SED.
Methods: Questionnaires covering demographics, medical history (cataract, retinal detachment, and osteoarthritis), surgical history (osteotomy and arthroplasty), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey were sent to all patients with MED and SED with medical records at the investigators’ institutions. Among the 27 patients who completed the questionnaire, patients aged 20 years or older were included in this cohort.
Results: The subjects were 18 affected individuals. The physical component summary score (PCS) was significantly lower in the MED and SED groups than in the normal population and tended to deteriorate with age. Conversely, there was a positive correlation between the mental component summary score and age. The role/social component summary score was not correlated with age. MED patients with osteoarthritis had a low PCS. PCS was particularly low in two SED patients with a medical history of cataract, whereas there was no association with a history of retinal detachment or osteoarthritis.
Conclusions: The physical domain of HRQoL in MED and SED patients significantly deteriorated at a young age. Appropriate medical management of these skeletal dysplasias is required not only for orthopedic functions but also for ocular problems.
Background: The onset of stroke in patients with cancer worsens their performance status and affects the treatment strategy for cancer. Nonetheless, intensive rehabilitation may be able to restore the once-lost therapeutic indications of cancer patients who have suffered a stroke. However, because the mechanism of stroke in patients with cancer varies widely, it is necessary to understand the patient background, including the cause of stroke, the control of the primary cancer, and the patient’s overall condition, so as to determine the appropriate rehabilitation regimen.
Case: A 65-year-old man presented with cerebral infarction. He was suspected of having recurrence or metastasis of bladder cancer just before the stroke. Because the patient’s performance status worsened with the onset of stroke, it was judged that there was no indication for further investigation and treatment of the bladder cancer, and priority was given to improving his physical function through rehabilitation. Rehabilitation improved the patient’s physical function, but in the meantime, the cancer progressed, and he died of cancerous pleural effusion.
Discussion: Intensive rehabilitation can be an effective treatment for patients with stroke associated with cancer, but in convalescent rehabilitation wards, it is not possible to combine rehabilitation and cancer treatment. Therefore, for patients whose physical function takes a long time to recover or whose cancer is not under control, it is necessary to make a careful decision on whether intensive rehabilitation is the optimum approach. To facilitate informed decision making, it is important to share information across departments.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate whether student athletes with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries who returned to sports (RTS) without reconstruction could continue their sporting activities until the end of the season and whether there was an increase in secondary damage associated with knee instability.
Methods: Altogether, 288 skeletally mature patients aged <25 years with new-onset isolated primary ACL injuries were included. Of these, 20 student athletes continued playing sports without ACL reconstruction to try to finish the season and were classified as the early return to sports (ERS) group; the remaining 268 patients, who immediately quit sports and underwent surgery, were classified as the non-ERS group. Knee symptoms and sporting performance for the rest of the season were assessed for the ERS group. The presence of secondary damage, e.g., meniscus injuries and chondral lesions, associated with instability were compared between the two groups.
Results: Fourteen ERS-group athletes (70%) indicated that their knees had given way during sporting activities, and seven athletes (35%) were unable to complete the season. In the ERS group, the mean self-estimated performance level after injury was 3.8 ± 2.5 (numeric rating scale 0–10). Despite the RTS period being relatively short, medial meniscus tears (P <0.001) significantly increased in the ERS group, and three patients experienced locking of the medial meniscus and required immediate surgery.
Conclusions: Although ERS without reconstruction to complete the season may be a reasonable strategy for ACL injury, patients’ self-estimated performance level was low and meniscal and cartilage injury rates significantly increased.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether an interaction exists between sensory impairment and age with respect to the recovery of upper-limb function in patients with subacute stroke.
Methods: This retrospective observational study included 83 patients recovering from subacute stroke in a rehabilitation hospital ward. The recovery of upper-limb function in four groups classified by age and sensory impairment were compared using analysis of covariance. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed with recovery of upper-limb function as the dependent variable and with binarized sensory impairment and binarized age and their interaction term as the independent variables.
Results: The estimated marginal means of upper-limb recovery were significantly higher in the non-late elderly (≤74 years) without sensory impairment group than in the other three groups. No significant differences were observed among the following three groups: the non-late elderly with sensory impairment, the late elderly (≥75 years) without sensory impairment, and the late elderly with sensory impairment. In multiple regression analysis, the interaction term between sensory impairment and age was significantly associated with improvement in upper-limb function (β=0.16, P <0.05). Age alone was significant, but sensory impairment alone was not significant.
Conclusions: Sensory impairment in patients with subacute stroke affects the recovery of upper-limb function as a result of age interactions.
Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum presents most typically in adolescent athletes who perform repetitive overhead activities. Earlier studies have demonstrated that conservative treatment of OCD is appropriate for patients with an open capitellar growth plate from the standpoint that spontaneous healing can be expected.
Case: A 12-year-old male baseball player with two years of experience with a local team participated in our medical check that included screening for capitellar OCD using ultrasonography. The subject experienced elbow pain when throwing, and ultrasonographic elbow examination indicated OCD of the capitellum, detected as irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum. The initial radiograph, taken with the elbow at 45° of flexion, identified new bone formation in the lateral aspect of the OCD lesion; however the epiphyseal lines of the capitellum and lateral epicondyle were closed. We advised the patient to stop heavy use of the elbow, e.g., throwing and batting, and started conservative treatment in anticipation of spontaneous healing. Physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder girdle, core, and hip and lower limb stretches were performed to resolve general tightness. The OCD lesion had healed completely 12 months after the start of conservative treatment.
Discussion: Conservative treatment for young baseball players might be worth considering if lateral new bone formation within the OCD lesion is detected on radiographic findings, even if the epiphyseal lines of the capitellum and lateral epicondyle are closed.
Objectives: Recently, the dart-throwing motion (DTM) has attracted attention as a functional direction of wrist joint motion. Consequently, we devised a new artificial muscle-type dynamic orthosis (Dynamic Traction Splint by Artificial Muscle, DTSaM) to reproduce DTM. This study analyzed the automatic motion of the wrist joint using a three-dimensional motion analysis system to assess how closely the DTSaM replicates DTM.
Methods: The DTSaM orthosis incorporates two McKibben-type rubber artificial muscles, and measurements were performed using image analysis software and a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The wrist radial angle (WRA) was defined as the angle between the line connecting the head of the index finger metacarpal to the radial styloid process and the line connecting the radial styloid process to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. WRAs were investigated from 60° of palmar flexion to 60° of dorsiflexion.
Results: For dorsiflexion, comparisons of radial deviation and wrist ulnar angle (WUA) between the motion obtained using the DTSaM orthosis and active DTM showed a significant difference (P <0.05) at 30° and 60°, respectively. For palmar flexion, the same comparison showed a significant difference for both the ulnar and radial deviations (30°, P <0.05; and 60°, P <0.01, respectively). Furthermore, WUA showed a significant difference at 50° (P <0.05). Intraclass correlation coefficient analyses yielded good reliability with an average value of ≥0.8.
Conclusion: The DTSaM orthosis produces a motion similar to the DTM. It is hoped that the use of the DTSaM orthosis will help to shorten the treatment period for patients with wrist disease.
Objectives: We analyzed exercise-related changes in cardiac troponins and other physiological and metabolic parameters in amateur wheelchair racers with spinal cord injury (SCI) participating in a marathon event.
Methods: This pilot, prospective, observational study was conducted at a community marathon event. Fifteen community-living individuals with SCI who had registered to participate in the marathon were recruited for the study. Participants with SCI used manually propelled wheelchairs (n=5) or tricycles (n=10). The outcome measures were high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T levels (hs-cTnT), heart rate, and metabolic parameters, including body temperature, serum electrolytes, and urine osmolality. These parameters were compared with 15 age- and race-distance-matched non-SCI runners who participated in the same marathon.
Results: Participants with SCI had a higher median (inter-quartile range) baseline hs-cTnT level [13.7 ng/L (10.3–25)] than did runners [4.2 ng/L (3.2–8.7; P <0.001)]. Post-race values of hs-cTnT were elevated in participants with SCI [28.0 ng/L (19.0–48.2)] and in runners [41.5 ng/L (18.4–87.1, P= 0.7)]; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Other parameters were not significantly different between SCI participants and runners.
Conclusion: Post-race hs-cTnT levels of amateur SCI participants were elevated but were not significantly different from those of runners. Other race-induced physiological and metabolic changes in SCI participants were comparable to those of runners. The high baseline hs-cTnT levels in participants with SCI observed in this study warrant further research.
Objective: Knee valgus during jump landing is a cause of knee injuries during sports activities. Body recognition is important for maintaining the knees and other body parts in their proper positions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knee valgus during jump landing in healthy young women is related to the inaccuracy of recognition of bilateral knee positions in the squatting position.
Methods: In 39 healthy young women, the degree of knee valgus was evaluated during the drop vertical jump test using the ratio of the knee separation distance to the ankle separation distance. The accuracy of recognition of bilateral knee positions in the squatting position was evaluated by having the blindfolded subjects indicate with their index fingers the subjective positions of their bilateral patellae by placing their fingers on a horizontal bar positioned in front of them 3 cm below the navel. The difference ratio of the recognized distance to the actual distance between the bilateral patellae was measured as an inaccuracy index.
Results: The degree of knee valgus during the drop vertical jump test was positively correlated with the degree of inaccuracy of the recognized knee position with the knees in the neutral position (r=0.358, P=0.025).
Conclusions: In healthy young women, knee valgus during jump landing was significantly correlated with the inaccuracy in knee position recognition in the squatting posture. This finding suggests that the assessment of knee position recognition in the squatting position could be useful as a screening tool for preventing knee injuries on jump landing during sports activities.
Objectives: We performed a survey of medical records to reveal the cognitive deficits behind dangerous driving in patients with higher brain dysfunction.
Methods: Thirty-four patients with higher brain dysfunction were included in this study. Patients’ basic characteristics, neuropsychological test results, scores on two types of driving aptitude tests, and accident/near miss data from a driving simulator were extracted from medical records. We conducted χ2 tests for independence between comprehensive driving aptitude scores and “traffic accidents” / “being prohibited from driving as defined by the number of traffic accidents and near misses.” Backward logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess correlations of “traffic accidents” and “being prohibited from driving as defined by the number of traffic accidents and near misses” with neuropsychological test scores.
Results: No significant correlation was observed between the comprehensive driving aptitude score and “traffic accidents” / “being prohibited from driving as defined by the number of traffic accidents and near misses.” The score on the Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices test was the only factor identified as a significant predictor of “being prohibited from driving as defined by the number of traffic accidents and near misses.”
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that it is important to focus on the decline in problem-solving ability as a predictor of “being prohibited from driving as defined by the number of traffic accidents and near misses.”
Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a postgraduate academic degree, longer clinical experience, and pain neurophysiology knowledge influence attitudes toward the balance between biomedical and biopsychosocial management of low back pain (LBP).
Methods: Ninety Japanese physical therapists completed the revised Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (revised NPQ), the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS-PT) questionnaire, and a survey on their degree qualifications and clinical experience. Their attitudes toward the balance between biomedical and biopsychosocial management of LBP were assessed using the mean biomedical scale scores divided by the mean biopsychosocial scale scores of the PABS-PT. Multiple regression modeling of the attitudes toward the balance between biomedical and biopsychosocial management of LBP was carried out using three independent variables: possession of an undergraduate or postgraduate academic degree, length of clinical experience, and the score on the revised NPQ.
Results: Of the 90 therapists, 72 had an undergraduate degree and 18 also had a postgraduate degree. Only the revised NPQ score (β=−0.364, P <0.001) was a statistically significant contributing factor to attitudes toward the balance between biomedical and biopsychosocial management of LBP (R2=0.14). Neither having a postgraduate degree (β=0.017, P=0.871) nor the length of clinical experience (β=−0.107, P=0.303) had a significant effect.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that pain neurophysiology knowledge, but not the possession of a postgraduate academic degree or the length of clinical experience, promotes attitudes toward biopsychosocial management of LBP among Japanese physical therapists.
Objectives: We investigated the efficacy and safety of Hylan G-F 20 for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis in Japanese patients.
Methods: Twenty-nine patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) received Hylan G-F 20 injection into the hip. The visual analog scale of pain during gait (VAS-G), VAS of pain at rest, hip joint function evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and adverse events were evaluated before, immediately after, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after injection. Patients were categorized according to the severity of OA (mild and severe OA groups) and dysplasia (dysplastic and non-dysplastic groups) and these groups were compared.
Results: After the injection, VAS-G improved significantly for 12 weeks. VAS-G was lower (less pain) in the mild OA group than in the severe OA group at each time point. There were no differences in VAS-G between the dysplastic and non-dysplastic groups throughout the observation period. VAS-G improved significantly in the dysplastic group after the injection. The JOA score and HRQoL demonstrated the same tendency as VAS-G. Three patients experienced worsening of local pain immediately after the injection; however, the pain on the following day was less than that before the injection in all three hips.
Conclusions: Hylan G-F 20 injection into the hip joint was effective in reducing hip pain and can be used as a non-operative treatment option for hip OA in the Japanese population.
Background: Conventional rehabilitation is known to improve walking ability after stoke, but its effectiveness is often limited. Recent studies have shown that gait training combining conventional rehabilitation and robotic devices in stroke patients provides better results than conventional rehabilitation alone, suggesting that gait training with a robotic device may lead to further improvements in the walking ability recovered by conventional rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this report was to highlight the changes in kinematic and electromyographic data recorded during walking before and after gait training with the Honda Walking Assist Device® (HWAT) in a male patient whose walking speed had reached a recovery plateau under conventional rehabilitation.
Case: The patient was a 42-year-old man with severe hemiplegia caused by right putaminal hemorrhage. He underwent conventional rehabilitation for 20 weeks following the onset of stroke, after which his walking speed reached a recovery plateau. Subsequently, we added robotic rehabilitation using HWAT to his regular rehabilitation regimen, which resulted in improved step length symmetry and gait endurance. We also noted changes in muscle activity patterns during walking.
Discussion: HWAT further improved the walking ability of a patient who had recovered with conventional rehabilitation; this improvement was accompanied by changes in muscle activity patterns during walking. The improvement in gait endurance exceeded the smallest meaningful change in stroke patients, suggesting that this improvement represented a noticeable enhancement in the quality of life in relation to mobility in the community. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm the results of the present case study.
Objectives: This study aimed to identify a position for core muscle activation (core activate position) for a seated subject and to design an exercise method using this position for rehabilitation during the daily maintenance or maintenance stages.
Methods: Thirteen young men participated as subjects in this study. We manufactured a chair in which the seat had an adjustable forward tilt angle. The subjects underwent ultrasonographic measurements of the thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles while sitting in the chair with the seat angle adjusted to 0°, 6°, or 12°. Further, we conducted image analysis to determine the positional relationships of these muscles using the following four points as landmarks: the anterior superior iliac spine, the posterior superior iliac spine, the fourth lumbar vertebra, and the seventh thoracic vertebra.
Results: Significant increases in the thickness of the transversus abdominis and external oblique muscles were observed when the seat forward tilt angle was adjusted to 12° (P <0.05). In the core activate position (which demonstrated effective activation of the transversus abdominis), the posterior superior iliac spine, the fourth lumbar vertebra, and the seventh thoracic vertebra were aligned in a straight line that was nearly perpendicular to the line connecting the anterior superior iliac spine and the posterior superior iliac spine.
Conclusions: This postural guidance can be applied to core exercise methods during maintenance rehabilitation.
Background : Fitting a femoral prosthesis in a transfemoral amputee with a very short amputation stump is challenging. This case report aimed to introduce an effective and simple method that can preserve the residual limb length by the implantation of antibiotic-loaded bone cement for the treatment of a patient with femoral periprosthetic infection
Case : A 30-year-old man who had osteosarcoma at the age of 13 years underwent transfemoral amputation 17 years after the initial surgery because of periprosthetic infection. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement was inserted into the infected bone marrow to control the residual infection and to preserve the stump length. The infection resolved, and the patient regained functional gait using a femoral prosthesis.
Discussion : This case report demonstrates the usefulness of antibiotic-loaded cement in preserving the length of residual limbs and for femoral prosthesis fitting after periprosthetic infection. Maintaining the residual bone length is crucial in amputees for the functional fitting of femoral prostheses. The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement has potential as a simple and useful surgical option in amputees after periprosthetic infection.
Objectives: The Health Sciences Evidence-Based Practice (HS-EBP) questionnaire was recently developed for measuring five constructs of evidence-based clinical practice among Spanish health professionals by applying content and construct validity investigation. The current study aims to undertake a cross-cultural adaptation of the HS-EBP into Japanese and to investigate the internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the Japanese HS-EBP among undergraduate students of nursing and physical and occupational therapies.
Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation was undertaken by following Beaton’s five-step process. Subsequently, the Japanese HS-EBP test–retest reliability was assessed with a 2-week interval. Participants were recruited from among third and fourth grade undergraduate students of nursing and physical and occupational therapies with clinical training experience.
Results: Pilot testing included 30 participants (11 nursing students, 11 physical therapy students, 8 occupational therapy students). Consequently, we developed the Japanese HS-EBP to be understandable for undergraduate students of nursing and physical and occupational therapies. Data from 52 participants who completed test–retest reliability questionnaires demonstrated adequate test–retest reliability in the total scores of Domains 1, 3, 4, and 5 [intraclass correlation coefficients were (ICC)=0.74, 0.70, 0.75, and 0.74, respectively]; the exception was Domain 2, which had an ICC of 0.66. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) was adequate for Domains 1–5, for which α was 0.87, 0.94, 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively.
Conclusions: This study developed the Japanese version of HS-EBP and provided preliminary evidence of adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability in most domains for undergraduate students of nursing and physical and occupational therapies.
Objectives : An important role of convalescent rehabilitation wards is the short-term improvement of mobility and activities of daily living (ADL). We aimed to identify predictors associated with the length of stay (LOS) in a convalescent hospital after total hip and knee arthroplasty.
Methods : This study included 308 patients hospitalized in a convalescent ward following total hip or total knee arthroplasty. The following factors were examined: age, sex, orthopedic comorbidities, motor component of the functional independence measure (M-FIM), M-FIM gain, pain, 10-m walk test, timed up and go (TUG) test, functional ambulation category (FAC), cognitive function, and nutritional status. LOS was categorized as shorter (≤40 days) or longer (>40 days), based on the national average LOS in a convalescent ward, and was statistically analyzed with predictor variables.
Results : In our hospital, the average LOS was 36.9 ± 21.4 days, and the average M-FIM at admission to the convalescent ward and the M-FIM gain were 71.1 ± 7.0 and 16.3 ± 6.9, respectively. In univariate analysis, there was a significant correlation between LOS and M-FIM at admission and M-FIM gain, pain, TUG time, and FAC. Logistic multivariate analysis identified M-FIM at admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–0.98) and TUG time (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03–1.18) as independent predictors of LOS.
Conclusions : The M-FIM and TUG test can be used to accurately estimate LOS and to plan rehabilitation treatment in a convalescent rehabilitation ward after lower-limb arthroplasty. Furthermore, preoperative or early postoperative intervention may lead to better quality motor activity and shorter LOS during the convalescent period.
Objectives : This study aimed to describe the injuries and illnesses that occurred at the 18th National Sports Festival for Persons with Disabilities in Japan, which was attended by more than 3000 athletes from beginner to elite levels.
Methods : Records from medical stations set up at the venues for each sport were reviewed. The incidence rates (IRs) were calculated as the number of medical station visits per 1000 athlete-days. The backgrounds of injuries and illnesses were investigated.
Results : In total, 3277 athletes attended the festival, and 134 eligible medical station visits were analyzed. Overall, 102 athletes complained of injuries. For the whole schedule of the festival, IRs were 15.5 for injuries and illnesses and 11.8 for injuries alone. For injuries and illnesses, high IRs were seen in soccer (39.8), basketball (25.6), and foot baseball (22.4); for injuries alone, high IRs were also seen in soccer (33.6), basketball (25.6), and foot baseball (16.8). The most frequent symptoms were internal symptoms (n=32), contusions (n=30), and wounds (n=24). Joint sprains occurred in various sports, whereas muscle strains happened mainly in disciplines demanding sprinting or high agility. Of the 55 cases that occurred during events or public rehearsals, 45 were traumatic, whereas the relation to sports activities was not described in 51 cases. Of participants with internal symptoms, 11 were suggested to have viral infections. We identified 21 injuries caused by falls.
Conclusions : Minor trauma and viral infection were the most frequently observed symptoms among injuries and illnesses, respectively. Structured medical records and organized surveillance systems should be utilized to improve data collection and understand the onset of injury and illness.
Objectives: The effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) on the prevention of aspiration pneumonia and improvements in activities of daily living (ADL) for enteral feeding-dependent stroke patients is unclear. We sought to clarify differences in the rates of aspiration pneumonia and ADL improvement between stroke patients receiving PEG and those receiving nasogastric tube feeding (NGT) in convalescent rehabilitation wards.
Methods: We assessed 10 years of data from the Kaga Regional Cooperation Clinical Pathway for Stroke, which covers patients in the southern district of Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan. Logistic regression analysis with propensity score adjustment was used to examine how the enteral feeding method affected aspiration pneumonia rates. Linear regression analysis, adjusted by propensity scores, was also performed to ascertain the effect of the enteral feeding method on ADL improvement.
Results: Overall, 47 patients with PEG and 49 patients with NGT were analyzed. The incidence of aspiration pneumonia was 4.67 times higher in the NGT group than in the PEG group in the propensity score-adjusted logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 4.67, 95% confidence interval 1.30–16.67, P=0.02). The enteral feeding method had no significant effect on ADL improvement in the propensity score-adjusted linear regression analysis.
Conclusions: In convalescent rehabilitation wards, aspiration pneumonia was more likely to occur in stroke patients with NGT than in those with PEG; however, the enteral feeding method did not affect ADL improvement. These results provide a basis for determining the appropriate enteral feeding method for stroke patients who cannot take adequate nutrition orally during convalescence/rehabilitation.
Objectives: This study investigated retrospectively the effect of early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit (ICU) by a dedicated therapist using a rehabilitation protocol.
Methods: The subjects comprised patients admitted to our emergency ICU. A dedicated therapist and a rehabilitation protocol were instigated in April 2018. We enrolled 330 patients in phase I (April 2016–March 2018) and 383 patients in phase II (April 2018–March 2020). Patients in the ICU for only one night and pediatric patients were excluded. The following data were accessed from medical records: sex, height, age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, rehabilitation intervention, ventilation at admission, duration of mechanical ventilation, extubation, reintubation, tracheotomy, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and outcome. The effectiveness of rehabilitation was assessed using the time from ICU admission to the first rehabilitation session, first sitting exercise, and first standing exercise. Clinical outcomes were analyzed separately for subjects discharged to home or transferred to another hospital.
Results: The percentage of subjects undergoing rehabilitation intervention increased significantly from 23.4% to 56.7% (P<0.001) in phase II. Moreover, reintubation (P=0.045); the length of ICU stay (P=0.022); and the time from ICU admission to the first rehabilitation session (P<0.001), the first sitting exercise (P=0.001), and the first standing exercise (P=0.047) significantly decreased in phase II. Furthermore, the duration of mechanical ventilation (P=0.007) and the length of ICU stay (P=0.036) were significantly reduced in the transfer group.
Conclusions: Although the effectiveness of early intervention was suggested, prospective multicenter studies are required to confirm this finding.
Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP) monotherapy for treating knee osteoarthritis compared with the combination of conventional oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Methods: A total of 222 participants (114, SFPP group; 108, control group) were treated for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in the degree of pain felt while rising from a chair after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment as determined using the visual analog scale (VAS) . The secondary endpoint was the change in functional scores and test results. Safety was evaluated in terms of the adverse effects.
Results: The VAS score significantly decreased in both groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Non-inferiority in the VAS score was established only at 2 weeks. There were no significant differences in the secondary endpoints between the groups. Skin disorders were more frequent in the SFPP group; however, there was no difference in gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects.
Conclusions: The therapeutic efficacy of SFPP monotherapy for knee OA, with respect to changes in the VAS, was not shown to be non-inferior to conventional treatment at 4 weeks; however, non-inferiority was established at 2 weeks. The functional improvement in the SFPP group was comparable to that of the control group. No severe GI adverse effects associated with SFPP administration were observed; however, it is necessary to pay more attention to the occurrence of skin disorders with SFPP than with conventional topical NSAIDs.
Objective: Elderly people with hallux valgus have decreased gait speed, which can result in reduced capacity to perform the activities of daily living. Therefore, this study examined the gait ability and related factors of patients with hallux valgus.
Methods: The study participants were 10 patients with hallux valgus and 10 without. Ground reaction forces were measured as front–rear (X), lateral (Y), and vertical (Z) components from the early to late stance phases. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to measure gait speed; touchdown distance; release distance; the angles of the limb joints and trunk at heel contact, toe-off, and peak ground reaction force; and the center of mass (COM) displacement in the sagittal plane. The height of the COM was calculated as a percentage of the body height. The hallux valgus and control groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U-test.
Results: In the hallux valgus group, the ground reaction force showed a significant increase in the Y component in each stance phase and in the Z component in the late stance phase. The lowest COM position in the hallux valgus group was significantly higher than that in the control group, resulting in a smaller difference in COM height over a gait cycle.
Conclusions: The hallux valgus group was found to have reduced gait speed because of a shortened touchdown distance. Moreover, the continued high COM position in the hallux valgus group meant that potential energy could not efficiently be converted to kinetic energy.
Objective: The hip joint is a crucial part of the kinetic chain for throwing baseball pitches. Nevertheless, few reports have described assessments of the functional development of the hip joint in young baseball players.
Methods: We examined 315 young baseball players, 7–14 years old, all of whom had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to the dominant side and throwing-related hip joint pain sustained during the previous year. We measured the hip ranges of motion (ROMs: external and internal rotation and flexion) and hip muscle strengths (external and internal rotation) on the dominant and non-dominant sides. The differences of hip ROMs and muscle strengths between the dominant and non-dominant sides and between age groups were investigated. Correlations were calculated between the players ages and hip ROMs and muscle strengths.
Results: No baseball player reported hip pain. The hip external rotation on the dominant side was smaller than that on the non-dominant side, whereas the hip internal rotation on the dominant side was greater than that on the non-dominant side. However, no significant difference was found between the dominant and non-dominant sides in terms of the hip muscle strength. Significant positive associations were found between the player’s age and hip muscle strengths, whereas significant negative associations were found between the age and hip ROMs.
Conclusions: Our data concerning the relationship between age and hip joint development could be useful for supporting strategies for the prevention and rehabilitation of throwing injuries; however, hip injuries might be rare among young baseball players.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine, using PubMed, the number of articles in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation medicine originating in Japan, especially those containing high-quality scientific evidence (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], systematic reviews, meta-analyses) and those published in high impact factor journals.
Methods: We searched the PubMed database to identify articles, RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses from Japan covering physical medicine and rehabilitation published between 2001 and 2019; we then calculated the proportion of articles from Japan. Additionally, using Journal Citation Reports, we selected the top ten highest impact factor journals on “Rehabilitation” each year between 2001 and 2019. For each year, we searched PubMed for the total number of articles in these top ten journals and for articles originating in Japan. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate the change in the proportion of publications from Japan over time.
Results: The proportion of articles on physical medicine and rehabilitation originating in Japan increased from 2001 to 2019 (P<0.0001). An increase in the percentages of systematic reviews (P=0.046) and meta-analyses (P=0.0013) originating in Japan and a decrease in the percentage of original articles published in the top ten highest impact factor journals were demonstrated (P=0.002). However, there was no change in the percentage of RCTs from Japan over time (P=0.055).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the proportion of articles from Japan containing high-quality scientific evidence is increasing. However, there is a need to expand the support system for research while considering the quality of research.
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe respiratory dysfunction and post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which can significantly affect the return to work after discharge from the hospital. This report describes the first case of a patient with severe COVID-19 at our institution during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (February to June 2020) who returned to work following rehabilitation management.
Case: A 48-year-old female nurse was admitted with COVID-19 and underwent mechanical ventilation (MV). Respiratory and anti-gravity training was conducted as physical therapy; however, the patient developed PICS, muscle weakness, delirium, and psychological problems. After the withdrawal of MV, muscle strengthening activities, activities of daily living (ADL) training, family visits, and occupational and speech therapy were started. On day 60 post-admission, the patient was able to perform ADL independently and was discharged; however, she continued to experience shortness of breath during exertion. Post-discharge, follow-up assessments for symptoms, respiratory function, and exercise capacity were continued. On day 130, she returned to work as a nurse.
Discussion: The PICS noted during hospitalization in this patient improved, but at discharge, the patient had difficulty completing the practical tasks involved in a nurse’s workload. Follow-up assessments of symptoms, respiratory function, and exercise capacity after discharge helped to determine whether the patient could return to work.
Objectives: Current advancements in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) include belt-shaped electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES), which was developed to induce whole leg muscle contraction in a single session. Delivering the optimal amount of stimulation is critical in NMES; therefore, we set out to establish a method to determine the B-SES stimulation intensity needed to induce muscle contraction sufficient for clinical purposes.
Methods: We used the Auto Tens Pro system (Homer Ion Laboratory), which is a B-SES device. Stimulation at 20 Hz was delivered for 5 s, followed by 2 s rest. Twenty-four patients who were hospitalized for musculoskeletal diseases were enrolled at two hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups of subjectively graded stimulation intensities: moderate, strong, or very strong. To achieve each target intensity, we developed a structured verbal instruction protocol that aimed to help therapists deliver the target level of stimulation. As a physiological assessment of muscle contraction, serum lactate levels were measured before and after a single 20-min B-SES session.
Results: The electric current intensity required to achieve a target subjective muscle contraction gradually increase according to the subjective contraction level. The increase in serum lactate level was significantly larger in the very strong group than in the moderate group.
Conclusions: B-SES stimulators have the potential to induce efficient muscle strengthening in patients with musculoskeletal diseases. The structured verbal protocol developed here could help therapists achieve the appropriate stimulation intensity for each patient.
Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the changes in clinical and psychosocial outcomes in patients with Dupuytren’s disease after initial treatment with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection.
Methods: This study involved 14 patients with Dupuytren’s disease who underwent treatment with CCH injection. The range of motion of each phalangeal joint was measured before treatment and at 6 months posttreatment. The following assessments were also carried out pre- and posttreatment: the Geriatric Depression Scale Short – Japanese version (GDS-J) to evaluate depressive status, Hand 10 to assess hand health status, and EuroQol-5-dimension-3-level Japanese version to evaluate health-related quality of life
Results: Significant improvements were found in metacarpophalangeal joint extension and proximal interphalangeal joint extension. Significant differences were also found between values before the initiation of CCH injection and those at 6 months posttreatment for the EuroQol index score and the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Significant positive correlations were found between the pre- to posttreatment change in GDS-J scores and for the change in Hand 10 scores. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between the change in GDS-J scores and change in EuroQol index scores/EuroQol VAS scores before and at 6 months after CCH injection.
Conclusions: For patients with Dupuytren’s disease, CCH therapy directly improved the health-related quality of life. The degree of improvement of depressive status was associated with the degree of improvement of hand health status and health-related quality of life.
Objectives: The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to investigate the difference before and after surgery in the six-minute walking distance (6MD) of lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to examine the long-term effect of the change in 6MD in the early postoperative period.
Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 25 COPD patients who underwent lung cancer surgery and perioperative rehabilitation in our department. Assessments of 6WD were carried out preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The changes in 6MD at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively compared with the preoperative value were designated the 1-month Δ6MD, the 3-month Δ6MD, and the 6-month Δ6MD, and the associations between them were investigated.
Results: The mean 6MD distance was 412.0±27.3 m (95% confidence interval) preoperatively, 369.0±33.8 m at 1 month, 395.6±32.2 m at 3 months, and 400.0±38.2 m at 6 months, with a significant difference between the preoperative and 1-month values (P<0.01). There were strong correlations between 1-month and 3-month Δ6MDs (r =0.74, P<0.0001) and between 1-month and 6-month Δ6MDs (r =0.88, P<0.0001).
Conclusions: In lung cancer patients with COPD, the 1-month Δ6MD was strongly associated with both the 3-month Δ6MD and the 6-month Δ6MD. These findings suggest that the decrease in exercise tolerance of patients whose 6MD is low at 1 month postoperatively may be prolonged, and such patients may therefore be in greater need of postoperative outpatient rehabilitation.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of the Cube Copying Test (CCT) for quantitative assessment of visuo-spatial function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Methods: The CCT, Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), and other neuropsychological tests were administered to 152 AD outpatients. For the quantitative assessment of CCT, we scored the points of connection (POC) and the number of plane-drawing errors (PDE) and categorized the pattern classification (PAC). We also measured Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) to assess the severity of AD. The relationships among CCT, RCPM, and FAST were then analyzed.
Results: The mean POC and PDE scores were 2.7 and 3.6, respectively, and the median PAC score was 6.0. PDE and PAC showed a linear relationship, but POC and PDE, and POC and PAC did not. Each component of CCT showed a significant correlation with RCPM scores. PDE and PAC had closer correlations with RCPM scores than POC did. The PDE and PAC results were significantly different among most of the FAST stages.
Conclusions: Quantitative assessment using CCT may be effective for the quick determination of the visuo-spatial function in AD patients.
Objectives: Pre-transplant rehabilitation for hematological malignancy patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) helps improve physical capacity. However, its benefit with respect to post-transplant hospital length of stay (LOS) is unclear. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-transplant rehabilitation on post-transplant LOS for hematological malignancy patients undergoing allo-HSCT.
Methods: Data on patients diagnosed between April 2014 and March 2017 were collected from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The patients were identified using the ICD-10 codes C81–85, C90–94, C96, and D46. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to identify the effects of pre-transplant rehabilitation on post-transplant LOS (log transformed).
Results: In total, 3614 patients were included in the study. Pre-transplant rehabilitation was associated with a significant reduction in post-transplant hospital LOS (β=–0.134, P<0.001).
Conclusions: Pre-transplant rehabilitation may be an effective strategy for shortening the post-transplant hospital LOS in hematological malignancy patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Consequently, it may be necessary to consider starting rehabilitation before transplantation.
Objectives: Subacromial pain syndrome is a common problem in primary care. Although several randomized controlled trials have shown that eccentric exercise is effective in patients with subacromial pain syndrome, its generalizability to real-world clinical practice is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, using propensity score analysis, the generalizability of eccentric exercise for patients with subacromial pain syndrome to real-world daily clinical practice.
Methods: In this study, 78 patients underwent eccentric exercise in addition to traditional exercise, and 77 patients underwent only traditional exercise for 4 weeks. Outcomes measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Society Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) scores were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks.
Results: In the propensity score-matched analysis, 65 patients in each group were successfully matched (130 of 155 patients, 84% overall). After 4 weeks of exercise, pain intensity was lower in the eccentric exercise group than in the traditional exercise group (VAS −14.5, 95% CI −21.2 to −7.9, P<0.001). No significant difference in the improvement in function was found between the two groups (ASES 4.1, 95% CI −2.0 to 10.2, P=0.18).
Conclusions: Eccentric and traditional exercise in combination could reduce pain in patients with subacromial pain syndrome to a greater extent than traditional exercise alone. These findings have clinical relevance to primary care practitioners who provide conservative treatment for patients with subacromial pain syndrome.
Background: A severely obese woman (39.8 kg/m2) with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia was admitted to our hospital to undergo salvage chemotherapy followed by cord blood transplantation (CBT).
Case: During the salvage chemotherapy period, a 70-day weight loss program addressing diet and exercise was administered. After the 70-day intervention, the patient’s body weight and body fat mass had decreased (8.6% and 15.0%, respectively) without any adverse events. The number of available cord blood units with total nucleated cells per body weight greater than 2 × 107/kg was zero at admission and two after weight loss; therefore, CBT could be performed.
Discussion: Considering this case, we suggest that a weight loss program combining exercise and nutrition therapy may help patients scheduled for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by focusing on risk management.
Objectives: In the field of exercise physiology, there has been great interest in exploring circulating microRNAs (miRs) as potential biomarkers. However, it remains to be determined whether circulating miRs reflect cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between circulating levels of specific miRs and cardiorespiratory fitness evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after acute myocardial infarction (MI).
Methods: Twenty patients who had had an acute MI were included. All patients underwent CPET in the convalescent phase. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses for miR-181 members (a/b/c) and miR-484 were performed to determine the expression levels in the peripheral blood of the included patients and healthy control subjects (n=5).
Results: Post-MI patients showed impaired exercise tolerance and ventilatory efficiency in CPET analysis. Compared with controls, circulating levels of miR-181a and 181c were gradually and significantly elevated through the 1st to 7th days after acute MI, whereas miR-181b and miR-484 were not. Circulating miR levels did not correlate with clinical or echocardiographic parameters. However, circulating levels of miR-181c and miR-484 on the 7th day showed significant positive correlations with the anaerobic threshold and peak oxygen consumption from CPET analysis. Moreover, miR-181c levels were inversely associated with the ventilatory inefficiency index. Patients with high exercise capacity after MI showed significantly higher expressions of circulating miR-181c and miR-484 than those with low exercise capacity.
Conclusions: The results of this pilot study suggest that circulating levels of miR-181c and miR-484 after acute MI may be predictive biomarkers of post-MI cardiorespiratory fitness.
Background: Congenital limb deficiency is a rare and intractable anomaly of the limbs; however, prostheses can partially complement the motor function and appearance of the missing limbs. The first prosthesis is usually prescribed for children with upper limb deficiencies at approximately 6–8 months of age. In affected children with additional problems associated with motor function, such as limb paralysis, the age for initiating prosthetic therapy and the benefit of prostheses in promoting and expanding their motor function and activities is unknown.
Case: In this case presentation, we describe a 25-month-old boy with cerebral palsy and left unilateral congenital upper limb deficiency caused by congenital constriction band syndrome. The patient could stand with assistance and crawl on his hands and knees. However, he was unable to walk with assistance or to stand on his own. A forearm prosthesis with a passive hand was prescribed and issued, and rehabilitation therapy for wearing and using the prosthesis was performed. At 34 months of age, the patient was able to walk forward using a walker with the prosthesis. Without the prosthesis, he still could not walk using a walker. The upper limb prosthesis also improved other movements such as sitting, standing, and tasks performed on a desk or on the floor.
Discussion: The prosthesis was apparently effective in improving motor function. Prosthesis prescription should be considered at an appropriate and early age considering individual developmental stages and needs, regardless of the existence of additional problems associated with motor function.
Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between the hip range of motion (ROM) and ankle ROM and throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries in elementary school baseball pitchers.
Methods: This retrospective comparative study (Level of evidence: Level III) included 195 baseball pitchers (mean age 10.8±1.0 years, range 8–12 years). All pitchers underwent physical function measurements, including height, weight, shoulder strength, and hip and ankle ROM. Shoulder and elbow injury was defined as shoulder and elbow pain that the pitchers had been aware of in the past or at the time of medical checkups. The results for the injured and non-injured groups were then compared.
Results: The shoulder ROM and strength in the injured and non-injured groups did not differ to a statistically significant extent. The hip external rotation on the dominant side (injured vs. non-injured: 48.9±11.1° vs. 53.3±9.7°, P<0.01), the hip internal rotation on the non-dominant side (injured vs. non-injured: 36.6±12.0° vs. 40.9±11.0°, P=0.01), and ankle plantar flexion on the non-dominant side (injured vs. non-injured: 52.0±6.8° vs. 54.3±6.7°, P=0.02) were significantly smaller in the injured group than in the non-injured group.
Conclusions: The hip external rotation ROM on the dominant side and the hip internal rotation and ankle plantar flexion on the non-dominant side were significantly lower in the injured group than in the non-injured group. These results may suggest measures to reduce the incidence of elbow and shoulder injuries in elementary school baseball pitchers.
Objectives: Patients identified as asymptomatic for unilateral spatial neglect (USN) based on paper-and-pen tests nonetheless often collide with objects to their left while walking. This study aimed to investigate chronic USN in subjects who experienced collisions while walking.
Methods: Two patients with chronic USN who experienced collisions while walking were evaluated using the Behavioral Inattention Test-conventional (BIT-c). Additionally, the modified Posner task (MPT) was used to evaluate the left and right reaction times. MPT targets randomly appeared either on the side indicated by the cue (valid condition) or on the opposite side (invalid condition). This study used an alternating treatments single-case design. The valid and invalid conditions of the MPT alternated rapidly and randomly to determine differences in reaction time. Statistical analysis compared left and right reaction times using a one-tailed randomization test to study valid and invalid conditions.
Results: The total BIT-c score was in the normal range for both subjects, whereas MPT reaction times were higher on the left side than on the right side for the invalid condition. However, for the valid condition, only Case B had increased reaction times on the left side.
Conclusions: The MPT valid condition evaluates voluntary attention, whereas the invalid condition evaluates the reorientation of attention. Consequently, for Case A, a left reorientation of attention deficit was observed, whereas, for Case B, left voluntary attention and left reorientation of attention deficits were observed. The MPT results revealed the characteristics of covert neglect signs. USN evaluation would benefit from additional research using MPT.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and efficiency of rehabilitation for patients diagnosed with moderate-to-severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
Methods: We retrospectively assessed the medical records of patients with COVID-19 who underwent rehabilitation for early mobilization and to maintain activities of daily living at our hospital between April 21 and August 20, 2020. The following patient data were evaluated: age, sex, diseases, and the total number of sessions completed by patients with severe COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU) and by patients with moderate disease in the general COVID-19 wards. The number of daily sessions performed by physiotherapists was also evaluated.
Results: Of 161 patients with COVID-19 admitted during the study period, 95 underwent rehabilitation (78 in the general COVID-19 wards and 17 in the ICU). These 95 COVID-19 patients completed 1035 rehabilitation sessions in total (882 in the general ward and 153 in the ICU). Polymerase chain reaction test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were positive for 79 patients on the initiation of rehabilitation. Moreover, 86 sessions were supervised remotely, thereby reducing the duration of the medical staff’s stay in the SARS-CoV-2 isolation area. Patients with COVID-19 in the ICU received significantly more daily physiotherapy sessions than general ward patients (P<0.001). Each physiotherapist performed, on average, 4.6 sessions daily, with 4.3 daily sessions being performed wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).
Conclusions: COVID-19 rehabilitation required more efforts as wearing PPE was necessary for most cases although tried with remote rehabilitation in some cases. Overall, a longer rehabilitation period was needed for ICU patients.
Objectives: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure at present. The initial symptoms resemble those of Parkinson’s disease; however, the prevalence of PSP is about one-tenth that of Parkinson’s disease. In many cases, dysphagia is severe, and the development of dysphagia is an early predictor of life expectancy. The aim of the current study was to define the effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD) on swallowing and voice/speech in seven patients with PSP.
Methods : Each patient underwent swallowing and voice/speech evaluations before and after 4 weeks of LSVT. Swallowing motility disorders were defined, temporal measures of swallowing were determined by videofluoroscopic evaluation, and voice measures of maximum phonation and speech intelligibility in reading and monologue were examined.
Results: After LSVT, the median duration of opening of the upper esophageal sphincter (from the beginning of the posterior movement of the bolus to upper esophageal sphincter opening) on videofluoroscopy was significantly shortened from 0.42 to 0.38 s (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P=0.016). The oral transit duration was decreased in five patients, but the decrease was not significant. Voice changes after LSVT included increases in voice intensity and in sustained duration were not significant.
Conclusion: In this small study, it was found that LSVT may improve swallowing functions in patients with PSP.
Background: Hip prostheses are generally avoided in elderly patients because of cognitive decline and/or reduced muscle strength. The present report describes the case of an elderly woman who regained gait using a prosthesis prescribed during the early postoperative phase following hip disarticulation.
Case: A 78-year-old woman suffered from a pathological fracture caused by liposarcoma of the left thigh. Before hospitalization, the patient was fully independent in her activities of daily living, including gait. The right and left handgrip strengths were 12.9 and 14.2 kg, respectively, and the patient had no signs of cognitive decline. Radical treatment involving hip disarticulation was scheduled. Before surgery, the possibility of fitting a hip prothesis that would allow the patient to walk was discussed, to which she consented. On postoperative day 23, the patient was fitted with a hip prosthesis and began gait training. On day 31, she was able to walk using a fixed walker and, eventually, using a crutch.
Discussion: The present case demonstrated the successful reacquisition of gait using a hip prothesis prescribed during the early postoperative phase after amputation, suggesting that the applicability of hip prostheses may be widely considered even for elderly patients.
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to assess the clinical features of ulnar tunnel syndrome (UTS) and to investigate the diagnostic value of nerve conduction measurements for UTS.
Methods: Eighteen patients with UTS were reviewed retrospectively. Fifteen patients had intrinsic muscle atrophy and motor weakness, and 15 had numbness with hypesthesia. The compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle and the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) from the little finger were recorded and analyzed. All patients underwent ulnar tunnel release surgery and neurolysis. Static two-point discrimination test results and pinch strengths were assessed before and after surgery.
Results: Before surgery, FDI-CMAP was recorded in 17 patients, and ADM-CMAP in 16, and all showed delayed latency and/or low amplitude. SNAP was recorded in eight patients and two showed delayed latency. The causes of ulnar nerve lesions were ganglion in five patients, traumatic adhesion in four, ulnar artery aberrancy in four, pisohamate arch in three, anomalous muscle in one, and ulnar vein varix in one. The sites of the lesions were in zone 1 of the ulnar tunnel anatomy in 12 patients, in zone 2 in 2, and in zones 1 and 2 in 4. After surgery, all patients obtained recovery of motor function and sensation; however, postoperative FDI-CMAP and ADM-CMAP did not improve to the normal range.
Conclusions: The causes of UTS were ganglion, traumatic adhesion, ulnar artery aberrancy, and pisohamate arch. Both FDI-CMAP and ADM-CMAP were valuable for electrophysiological diagnosis of UTS.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of the mobile assessment of varus thrust using inertial measurement units (IMUs).
Methods: A total of 80 knees in 49 patients were enrolled in this study. On visual analysis of gait to determine the presence or absence of varus thrust, 23 knees were assigned to the Present group, 17 to the Ambiguous group, and 40 to the Absent group. The peak knee varus angular velocities (PVVs), measured by quantitative gait analysis using nine-axis IMUs, were compared between these three groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve for the relationship between the visual assessment of varus thrust (Present and Ambiguous) and the measured PVV was created, and the cut-off PVV for visualized varus thrust was determined as the highest point for both sensitivity and specificity.
Results: The mean PVVs were significantly different between the three groups (Present, 47.7 ± 8.2 degree/s, Ambiguous, 34.1 ± 10.5 degree/s, and Absent, 28.1 ± 8.3 degree/s, respectively, ANOVA P=0.000). The PVV cut-off value for visualized varus thrust was 28.1 degree/s, yielding a sensitivity of 0.957 and a specificity of 0.579.
Conclusions: A PVV <28.1 degree/s is useful for ruling out varus thrust during gait. This quantitative varus thrust assessment method using IMUs has clinical utility as a screening test.
Objectives: We aimed to identify the quadriceps muscle strength (QMS) thresholds below which exercise capacity is compromised in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods: We measured the quadriceps isometric maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC) and calculated the QMVC values normalized to weight (QMVC-BW), height squared (QMVC-H2), and body mass index (QMVC-BMI) in 113 patients with COPD. The functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and 6MWD <350 m was defined as functional exercise intolerance. Thresholds were determined for QMVC and its normalized values to achieve high specificity (>0.90) with maximal sensitivity. P-values <0.01 were considered statistically significant.
Results: Data from 99 male patients (age, 74 ± 6 years; percentages of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1-s, 56.9 ± 26.4%) were analyzed; 3 women and 11 participants with the missing data were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression models identified significant associations of QMVC and QMVC-H2 with 6MWD, after adjustment for age and dyspnea. C-statistics showed that the area under the curves of all QMVC parameters were comparable. The thresholds of QMVC and QMVC-H2 for predicting compromised exercise capacity were 26.2 kg and 9.6 kg/m2, respectively.
Conclusions: QMS thresholds in men with COPD could help clinicians evaluate whether QMS is insufficient to achieve 6MWD ≥350 m and thereby identify patients who should be specifically targeted for muscle strengthening training during their pulmonary rehabilitation program.
Background: After the emergence of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), cluster infections occurred at several rehabilitation facilities in Japan. Because rehabilitation is necessary for deconditioned COVID-19 patients, preventing cluster infections and providing rehabilitation while protecting therapists were also essential in the Wakayama region.
Webinar The rehabilitation medicine department and division of Wakayama Medical University Hospital, which consists of physiatrists and registered therapists, proposed that the Wakayama Physical Therapy Association hold an urgent webinar for therapists in the Wakayama region. The webinar (120 min in duration) comprised an overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the significance of rehabilitation therapy for COVID-19 patients, instruction in personal protective equipment, and case reports on COVID-19 patients from an affiliated university hospital. The webinar was held on May 16, 2020, after only 9 days of preparation. Ninety-six members of 29 facilities in the Wakayama region participated, including therapists who lived far from the university. Moreover, the webinar was implemented at a lower cost than a conventional meeting. An opportunity was provided to share information among participants, speakers, instructors, and a supervisor after the presentations. The overall level of satisfaction of participants after the webinar was high.
details: The rehabilitation medicine department and division of Wakayama Medical University Hospital, which consists of physiatrists and registered therapists, proposed that the Wakayama Physical Therapy Association hold an urgent webinar for therapists in the Wakayama region. The webinar (120 min in duration) comprised an overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the significance of rehabilitation therapy for COVID-19 patients, instruction in personal protective equipment, and case reports on COVID-19 patients from an affiliated university hospital. The webinar was held on May 16, 2020, after only 9 days of preparation. Ninety-six members of 29 facilities in the Wakayama region participated, including therapists who lived far from the university. Moreover, the webinar was implemented at a lower cost than a conventional meeting. An opportunity was provided to share information among participants, speakers, instructors, and a supervisor after the presentations. The overall level of satisfaction of participants after the webinar was high.
Conclusion: This webinar for therapists in local facilities was held by physiatrists and therapists at Wakayama Medical University, a regional core hospital, in collaboration with the regional therapy association. The preparation time was only 9 days and the cost was lower than that for a conventional meeting, thereby allowing participants to share information about infection control for COVID-19 in an efficient and cost-effective manner.
Objectives: This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the effect of acquisition of an exercise habit on locomotive dysfunction (LD).
Methods: The subjects were 121 male and 196 female volunteers aged more than 50 years who attended health checkups in Toei, central Japan, in 2012 and 2014. We divided the subjects into three groups: an acquiring exercise group (Ac-Ex) composed of those who acquired an exercise habit between 2012 and 2014, a non-exercise group (Non-Ex) who did not acquire an exercise habit, and an exercise group (Ex) who already had an exercise habit in 2012. We compared the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) score among the three groups.
Results: In men in the Ac-Ex group, the GLFS-25 score improved significantly between 2012 and 2014 (P=0.046), and sub-analysis of the GLFS-25 responses showed that fundamental and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) improved significantly. In women in the Ac-Ex group, the prevalence of radiologically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis was significantly higher (P=0.027) than that for the other two groups, and there was no significant improvement in GLFS-25 score over the 2-year period.
Conclusions: The acquisition of an exercise habit had a positive effect on the locomotive function in men. Orthopedic surgeons must enlighten people on the need for a continuous exercise habit.
Objectives : The aim of the study was to understand the physical therapist’s experience and perception of the support they give to their older patients or clients to continue exercising.
Methods : Using purposive sampling, we recruited fifteen physical therapists with more than 5 years of clinical experience and conducted semi-structured interviews. We analyzed the transcribed data using thematic analysis.
Results : Three main themes emerged: (1) the expected results as healthcare professionals, (2) clinical experience and continuing professional development, and (3) limited educational opportunities. Physical therapists struggled to achieve a certain level of exercise adherence in their patients, and the low success rate decreased their confidence. We found that physical therapists needed not only to rely on clinical experience but also to integrate scientific evidence to implement better behavioral change techniques; they would also appreciate receiving appropriate educational opportunities.
Conclusions : This study revealed a possibility of educational insufficiency for physical therapist to support of behavior change to improve exercise adherence in the older population.