Burke's “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful” should be read as the expression of his religion as has been asserted by F. P. Lock, Ian Harris and others. We can see his religion in “A Note-Book of Edmund Burke”, in which he says “Hence Moral Duties are included in Religion, and enforced by it”. Religion enforces men to perform their moral duties. The sublime is almost equivalent to the feeling of divine or delightful horror to the power of God. Burke tried to remind us of the fear to God through his discourse on the sublime. In this point, we can say that Burke revolted against the 18th century when the God of Justice was stepping back to the scenery of this world.
According to a commonplace view about the later Wittgensteinʼs philosophical method, a truly critical stance in philosophy is incompatible with the respect for common sense that Wittgensteinʼs official metaphilosophy endorses. Against this idea, I will claim that these are compatible. Especially, I will argue that (i) the role of common sense in Wittgensteinʼs philosophy is no more than to offer models for clarifying various philosophical utterances, and (ii) Wittgensteinʼs philosophy is truly critical in that it examines our framework of thoughts including common sense, so that Wittgenstein can be properly called a philosopher of common sense and enlightenment.
A pamphlet titled The Discoverie of a Gaping Gulf, in which John Stubbs made the comprehensive argument over Elizabeth Iʼs marriage, was published in August 1579. In Gaping Gulf, showing a strong aversion to France, Stubbs insisted that (in terms of religion, history, international war and politico-legal custom) it is impossible for England to tie the knot with France and called for solidarity among Englishmen. In addition, he demanded ʻtrue Englishmanʼ should provide ʻfaythfull counsaileʼ about this issue. According to Stubbs, ʻcounselorsʼ must be ʻChristian commonwealthmenʼ, who dedicate themselves to church and ʻcommonwealthʼ (a community aimed at the common good). If we exploit A.D. Smithʼs argument here, Stubbsʼ ʻcountry loueʼ shows the ideological transition from ʻethnicityʼ to ʻcitizenshipʼ in Tudor England.