The mechanism of spontaneous islet fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Using sections of the pancreas in naive males aged 26 to 102 weeks old and 26-week-old males injected with β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB), the incidence of lesions and histological scores of fibrosis were examined in conjunction with immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) and estrogen receptor-α (ERα). The incidence of islet fibrosis increased in 78-week-old animals compared to the 26-week-old animals, and the incidence of atrophy in the fibrotic islet increased in animals over 52 weeks old. α-SMA and PDGFRα were positively stained mainly in fibrotic/inflammatory islets, and the histological score of α-SMA in the fibrotic islet decreased age-dependently. Notably, α-SMA and PDGFRα were co-expressed in inflammatory islets with a high score at all ages. The positive index of ERα in the EB-treated group increased when compared with that of the naive group. However, it was independent of the existence of fibrosis. In contrast, the score of α-SMA and PDGFRα decreased in the EB-treated group. In conclusion, it was clarified that a part of age-related fibrosis in islets became atrophy with age, and α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were considered to contribute to the development of fibrosis. Strong PDGFRα stainability in fibrotic/inflammatory islets may imply that myofibroblasts were stimulated by PDGF to produce an extracellular matrix. Although estradiol has been known to suppress fibrosis/inflammation in the islet, nuclear-located ER-dependent signaling was considered not to be involved in the suppression mechanism. EB possibly affected the inhibition of the appearance of myofibroblasts.
In various kinds of glomerulonephritis, alteration of anionic charge on the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and podocytes has been controversial for more than decade. To elucidate the relation between glomerular protein leakage and anionic sites on the glomerular wall, we examined the distribution of anionic sites on the GBM and podocytes of rats with active Heymann nephritis (AHN). Urinalysis for protein levels was conducted, and the kidneys were examined using electron microscopic cytochemistry for the assessment of anionic charge with two cationic probes. The anionic sites on podocytes were decreased in number in the AHN rats; however, the distributions of anionic sites on the GBM were similar in density to those seen in the control animals. From these results, we consider that the decrease in anionic charge density on podocytes might be attributable to protein leakage and that the charge barrier of the GBM is irrelevant to the protein leakage in AHN rats.
In this study, the potential for development of an animal model (GPG46) capable of rapidly detecting chemical carcinogenicity and the underlying mechanisms of action were examined in gpt delta rats using a reporter gene assay to detect mutations and a medium-term rat liver bioassay to detect tumor promotion. The tentative protocol for the GPG46 model was developed based on the results of dose-response exposure to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and treatment with phenobarbital over time following DEN administration. Briefly, gpt delta rats were exposed to various chemicals for 4 weeks, followed by a partial hepatectomy (PH) to collect samples for an in vivo mutation assay. The mutant frequencies (MFs) of the reporter genes were examined as an indication of tumor initiation. A single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 10 mg/kg DEN was administered to rats 18 h after the PH to initiate hepatocytes. Tumor-promoting activity was evaluated based on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci at week 10. The genotoxic carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinolone (IQ) and safrole (SF), the non-genotoxic carcinogens piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and phenytoin (PHE), the non-carcinogen acetaminophen (APAP) and the genotoxic non-hepatocarcinogen aristolochic acid (AA) were tested to validate the GPG46 model. The validation results indicate that the GPG46 model could be a powerful tool in understanding chemical carcinogenesis and provide valuable information regarding human risk hazards.
Organ weight is one of the most sensitive drug toxicity indicators, and its changes often precede morphological changes. So far, no background data about organ weight and its coefficient in SD rats at different weeks of age have been reported in China. The aim of this study was to summarize and analyze the change trends of organ weight and organ weight coefficients in SD rats at different weeks of age. The absolute of the weights of the brain, spleen, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and testes were increased in male SD rats from 13 to 78 weeks, and the weights of the brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys and especially the testes were decreased from 78 to 104 weeks. On the other hand, the absolute weight of the adrenal glands showed an increasing trend from 13 to 104 weeks. The absolute weight of the brain, spleen, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and ovaries showed an increasing trend from 13 to 104 weeks. A significant increase was observed in adrenal gland and ovary weights, whereas no obvious change trends were observed for the other organ weights mentioned above. It was surprising that the absolute of weight of the adrenal glands and organ-to-brain and organ-to-body weight ratios in female rats were significantly higher than those in males from 13 to 104 weeks. This study was the first to establish background data for organ weights in SD rats at different weeks of age and their reference ranges in line with the experimental animal status in China and to summarize their summarized their changes trend.
Defensins are generally implicated in the quick resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbials; however, recent reports have indicated that defensins also have unknown purposes in relation to noninfectious diseases. In this study, the localization patterns of anti-microbial peptides, β defensins (BDs), in the tracheal epithelium of male C3H mice under exposure to toluene were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Mice were exposed one to ten times to toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation. Expression of BDs was revealed by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of trachea after the final exposure. Expression of BD-1 was usually observed at almost the same levels in all exposure groups, and expression of BD-2 was observed in the control group; however, the signals for BD-2 decreased gradually with frequency of exposure. In the group exposed ten times, expression of BD-2 decreased to far lower than that of the control group. No expression of BD-3 was detected in any groups. Interestingly, expression of BD-4 increased to the maximum in the group exposed four times and decreased to a level lower than that of the control in the group exposed ten times. The results of the present study indicated that toluene gas might change the expression pattern of BDs in the tracheal epithelial cells. The oscillation of expression of BD-4 was quite characteristic and might contribute to morphological damage in on the epithelial cells.
Some therapeutic antibodies as anticancer agents exert their effects through the host immune system, but the factors that predict their cytotoxicity, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), are unclear. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate some of these factors in a preclinical model. CDC-related mesangiolysis caused by administration of the anti-Thy-1.1 antibody can be studied in the rat anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis model, so the model was used in this study. Three animals each were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 8, 24 and 48 hours after i.v. administration of the anti-Thy-1.1 antibody at 1mg/kg. The distribution of the Thy-1.1 antigen and 2 membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs), Crry and CD55, in three non-treated animals and the distribution of the injected antibody and C3 in the model was studied by immunohistochemistry. In the mesangial cells of the kidney, both expression of the antigen and distribution of the antibody with C3 deposition were observed with weak expression of mCRPs. There was also antigen and antibody distribution in the medullary cells of the adrenal gland and in the lymphocytes of the thymus but no C3 deposition, which was thought to be related to high expression of mCRPs. The antigen was observed in several other organs and tissues without distribution of the antibody. Cell death was only observed in the mesangial cells. These results clearly demonstrate that activation of CDC is regulated by several factors, such as distribution of the target molecule, antibody distribution and the balance among the molecules of the CDC cascade and mCRPs.
Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats.
In rats, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish malignant reticuloses from astrocytomas in routine histopathological assessment. In the present study, four spontaneous brain neoplasms developing in the cerebrum of one Wistar Hannover rat and three Sprague-Dawley rats were immunohistochemically examined using microglia and macrophage markers. Histopathologically, these neoplasms were localized mainly in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus or piriform lobe, and the portions showing solid growth did not show characteristic cellular arrangement but had an indistinct boundary with the surrounding brain parenchyma. Neoplastic cells had oval or pleomorphic small nuclei with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Two cases showed neoplastic cell infiltration into the meninges and perivascular spaces. Silver staining showed lack of reticulin fiber production in the stroma of the neoplasms. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for Iba-1 and sporadically positive for CD68 in all four cases. On the basis of these results, all the neoplasms examined here could be distinguished from astrocytomas and diagnosed as malignant reticuloses. Thus, immunohistochemical demonstration of microglia/macrophage characters, such as using Iba-1, is considered to be helpful for differential diagnosis of malignant reticuloses from astrocytomas among spontaneously occurring primary brain neoplasms in rats.
Uterine deciduomas were found in two female virgin rats, a 15-week-old Lewis rat and a 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat. The firm white nodules were located at the base of unilateral uterine horns and were approximately 6 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Histopathologically, the nodules were composed of three areas, each with a distinct type of proliferating cells: large epithelioid decidual cells with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (antimesometrial region); compact spindle-shaped cells with oval nuclei and vacuolar cytoplasm (transitional region); and pleomorphic and spiny cells with round to oval nuclei and compact eosinophilic cytoplasm (mesometrial region). These cells proliferated in sheet-like arrangements and transformed into the other types of cells located in surrounding regions. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cells in all regions were strongly positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The proliferating cells were positive for vimentin, and large decidual cells were positive for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen 10, a marker of uterine interstitial cells. Large decidual cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin and desmin, suggesting differentiation into muscular cells. Progesterone receptor was expressed in all cell types; however, estrogen receptor α was not expressed in the antimesometrial region. These extremely rare tumor-like nodules represent nonneoplastic lesions referred as decidual reactions of endometrial interstitial cells, and their biological behavior is that of a space-occupying benign tumor in young rats. Our cases might provide information as a historical control in toxicity and pharmacological studies in rats.
The present report describes a rare case of spontaneous tumor of the salivary gland in a male Sprague-Dawley rat. The clinically confirmed mass rapidly developed in the cervical region between 19 and 21 weeks of age, and the animal was subsequently euthanized. At necropsy, a well-circumscribed nodule approximately 7 × 6 cm in diameter was found at the site of the salivary gland. The cut surface of the nodule was lobulated and soft and had a pinkish tan fish-flesh appearance. One large cyst (approximately 3 × 2 cm in size) containing reddish fluid was also present in the nodule. Histopathologically, the tumor, with a partially lobulated structure, was surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule. The majority of tumor cells formed a diffuse solid sheet structure that mainly consisted of small ovoid or spindle-shaped cells. In the tumor periphery, some cells were arranged in nest-like structures. Small duct-like structures lined with a monolayer of cuboidal epithelial cells resembling an intercalated duct or large polygonal clear cells with a myoepithelial component were also observed. Mitotic figures and necrotic foci were frequently observed in solid areas. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, p63, α-smooth muscle actin and calponin. The cells were negative for calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin A. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma originating from the luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells in the submandibular gland.
In the present study, we evaluated the influence of intraperitoneal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on the placenta. There was no increase in apoptotic cells in the placentas of C57BL/6 mice treated with 25.0 mg/kg MPTP or 17.1 mg/kg MPP+, indicating that a single injection of the chemicals may induce very slight cytotoxicity in the placenta at 12 hr after administration. The decrease in the expression of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A in the labyrinth zone and that of MAO-B in the basal zone may be due to the decrease in cell activity, whereas the increase of MAO-B expression in the labyrinth zone after MPTP treatment may be due to a responsive reaction caused by MPTP, one of the substrates of MAO-B. The results represent histological evidence that MAO-B may be involved in the metabolism of MPTP to MPP+ in the labyrinth zone of the mouse placenta. In the present study, no increase in apoptotic cells indicates that MPTP and MPP+ are hardly toxic to the placenta, and the histological change in MAO-B expression may indicate the possibility of involvement of placental MAO-B in MPTP metabolism.
Despite its medical use, little is known about the mechanisms underlying amikacin-induced embryotoxicity, including fin reduction, in zebrafish. In this study, we examined the expression of well-known autophagy markers mTOR (target of rapamycin), atg10 (autophagy-related gene), atg12 and LC3 (mammalian homolog of Atg8) in amikacin-treated zebrafish embryos. Our results indicated that the mRNA expression level of atg12 in the amikacin-treated group was significantly increased by 1.5-fold (p<0.05) compared with the corresponding mock control group, while the expression levels of atg10 and mTOR were significantly decreased by 0.74-fold (p<0.05) and 0.58-fold (p<0.05), respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that LC3 protein expression was induced by amikacin. Taken together, these data suggest that amikacin-induced fin reduction is mediated by fin cell autophagy.
Abstract: Background data during the gestation period were obtained from 128 Wistar Hannover GALAS rats and 26 Crl:CD(SD) pregnant rats in the control groups of our previous toxicity studies. The body weights of dams in the Wistar Hannover GALAS rats were significantly lower throughout the gestation period than those in the Crl:CD(SD) rats. In contrast, the time-dependent change in the body weight gain (%) of dams showed very similar trends in both strains. The mean number of live embryos/fetuses in the Wistar Hannover GALAS rats was 12.0, and was lower than that (14.5) in the Crl:CD(SD) rats. The placental weights gradually increased with pregnancy progression and reached a plateau on gestation day (GD) 19, although the embryo/fetal weights rapidly increased from GD 17 to GD 21. The embryo/fetal weights in the Wistar Hannover GALAS rats were significantly lower on only GD 21 than those in the Crl:CD(SD) rats. It is considered that this fetal weight difference between the strains develops during the fetal period, but not during the organogenesis period. In contrast, there were no differences in the placental weights between the two strains. Microscopically, the thickness of the labyrinth zone in the Wistar Hannover GALAS rats was thicker throughout the gestation period than that in the Crl:CD(SD) rats.