This review describes effects of miso with reference to prevention of radiation injury, cancer and hypertension with a twin focus on epidemiological and experimental evidence. Miso with a longer fermentation time increased crypt survival against radiation injury in mice. When evaluating different types of miso provided by different areas in Japan, miso fermented for a longer period increased the number of surviving crypts, and 180 days of fermentation was the most significant. Dietary administration of 180-day fermented miso inhibits the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and rat colon cancers in F344 rats. Miso was also effective in suppression of lung tumors, breast tumors in rats and liver tumors in mice. The incidence of gastric tumors of groups of rats given NaCl was higher than those of the groups given miso fermented for longer periods. Moreover, the systolic blood pressure of the Dahl male rat on 2.3% NaCl was significantly increased but that of the SD rat was not. However, the blood pressures of the rats on a diet of miso or commercial control diet (MF) did not increase. Even though miso contains 2.3% NaCl, their blood pressures were as stable as those of rats fed commercial diet containing 0.3% salt. So we considered that sodium in miso might behave differently compared with NaCl alone. These biological effects might be caused by longer fermentation periods.
An era can be defined as a period in time identified by distinctive character, events, or practices. We are now in the genomic era. The pre-genomic era: There was a pre-genomic era. It started many years ago with novel and seminal animal experiments, primarily directed at studying cancer. It is marked by the development of the two-year rodent cancer bioassay and the ultimate realization that alternative approaches and short-term animal models were needed to replace this resource-intensive and time-consuming method for predicting human health risk. Many alternatives approaches and short-term animal models were proposed and tried but, to date, none have completely replaced our dependence upon the two-year rodent bioassay. However, the alternative approaches and models themselves have made tangible contributions to basic research, clinical medicine and to our understanding of cancer and they remain useful tools to address hypothesis-driven research questions. The pre-genomic era was a time when toxicologic pathologists played a major role in drug development, evaluating the cancer bioassay and the associated dose-setting toxicity studies, and exploring the utility of proposed alternative animal models. It was a time when there was shortage of qualified toxicologic pathologists. Continued on Full Text PDF
Fenitrothion (FNT) is an organophosphate compound widely used as pesticide in Malaysia. The present study aims to investigate effects of palm oil tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on the renal damage of FNT-treated rats. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups randomly, the control, TRF, FNT and FNT+TRF groups. FNT (20 mg/kg b.w.) and TRF (200 mg/kg b.w.) were given orally for 28 days continuously. Rats from the FNT+TRF group were supplemented with TRF 30 minutes prior to administration of FNT. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days, and the kidneys were removed for determination of oxidative stress and histological analysis. Plasma was collected for determination of blood creatinine and urea level. Statistical analysis showed that palm oil TRF has a protective effect against renal oxidative damage induced by FNT. In the FNT+TRF group, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly lower, while the glutathione level as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly higher compared with the FNT-treated group (p<0.05). As for renal function, there was a markedly lower urea level (p<0.05) in the FNT+TRF group compared with the FNT-treated group, but there was no significant difference in creatinine level. Besides, total protein also showed no significant difference for all groups of rats (p>0.05). Histological evaluation also revealed that the FNT+TRF group had less glomerulus and renal tubule damage than the FNT-treated group. In conclusion, palm oil TRF was able to reduce oxidative stress and renal damage in FNT-treated rats.
To determine effects of developmental exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), weak thyroid hormone disruptors, on white matter development, white matter-specific global gene expression analysis was performed using microdissection techniques and microarrays in male rats exposed maternally to decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), one of the representative BFRs, at 10, 100 or 1000 ppm. Based on previous gene expression profiles of developmental hypothyroidism and DBDE-exposed cases, vimentin+ immature astrocytes and ret proto-oncogene (Ret)+ oligodendrocytes were immunohistochemically examined after developmental exposure to representative BFRs, i.e., DBDE, 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD; 100, 1000 or 10,000 ppm) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA; 100, 1000 or 10,000 ppm). Vimentin+ and Ret+ cell populations increased at ≥ 100 ppm and ≥ 10 ppm DBDE, respectively. Vimentin+ and Ret+ cells increased at ≥ 1000 ppm HBCD, with no effect of TBBPA. The highest dose of DBDE and HBCD revealed subtle fluctuations in serum thyroid-related hormone concentrations. Thus, DBDE and HBCD may exert direct effects on glial cell development at ≥ middle doses. At high doses, hypothyroidism may additionally be an inducing mechanism, although its contribution is rather minor.
To evaluate pulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to 0.2, 1 or 5 mg/m3 MWCNT aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks using a whole-body exposure system. At the end of the 2-week exposure period, one-half of the rats were necropsied, and at the end of an additional 4-week postexposure period, the remaining rats were necropsied. MWCNTs were deposited in the lungs of all MWCNT-exposed groups and mostly remained in the lungs throughout the 4-week postexposure period. Granulomatous changes in the lung were found in the rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 MWCNTs, and these changes were slightly aggravated at the end of the 4-week postexposure period. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the numbers of neutrophils, percentages of bi- and multinucleated alveolar macrophages, levels of ALP activity and concentrations of total protein and albumin were elevated in the rats exposed to 1 and 5 mg/m3 MWCNTs. At the end of the 4-week postexposure period, the values of the BALF parameters tended to remain elevated. In addition, goblet cell hyperplasias in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx were observed in the rats exposed to 1 and 5 mg/m3 MWCNTs, but these lesions had largely regressed by the end of the postexposure period. Based on the histopathological and inflammatory changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for inhalation of MWCNTs for 2 weeks was 0.2 mg/m3.
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced renal tumors in rats and Wilms tumors in humans were compared. Renal mesenchymal tumors (RMTs) and nephroblastomas (blastemal and epithelial components) in female Lewis rats treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg MNU at birth and Wilms tumors (blastemal, epithelial and mesenchymal components) in humans were analyzed for the expression of pancytokeratin (CK), vimentin, p63, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, S-100, CD57, CD117/c-kit, Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) and β-catenin. The mesenchymal components of rat RMTs and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, SMA and β-catenin. The blastemal components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, CD117/c-kit and β-catenin. The epithelial components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin and β-catenin. WT1 was expressed in different cellular components of rat tumors as compared with human Wilms tumors; the expression was seen in mesenchymal tumors and blastemal components of nephroblastomas in rats and epithelial components in human Wilms tumors. CK, p63 and CD57 were not expressed in rat RMTs or nephroblastomas, while CK and WT1 were expressed in epithelial components and CD57 was expressed in blastemal and epithelial components of human Wilms tumors. Rat and human tumors were universally negative for the expression of desmin and S-100. The immunohistochemical characteristics of rat renal tumors and human Wilms tumors may provide valuable information on the differences in renal oncogenesis and biology between the two species.
Rotenone is an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I that produces a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which neurons undergo dopamine release dysfunction and other features. In neurons, exocytosis is one of the processes associated with dopamine release and is dependent on Ca2+ dynamic changes of the cell. In the present study, we have investigated the exocytosis of dopamine and the involvement of Ca2+ in dopamine release in PC12 cells administrated with rotenone. Results demonstrated that rotenone led to an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ through Ca2+ influx by opening of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel and influenced the soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins expression (including syntaxin, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) and synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25)); pretreatment with a blocker of L-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (nifedipine) decreased the intracellular dopamine levels and ROS formation, increased the cell viability and enhanced the neurite outgrowth and exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. These results indicated that the involvement of intracellular Ca2+ was one of the factors resulting in suppression of dopamine release suppression in PC12 cells intoxicated with rotenone, which was associated with the rotenone-induced dopamine neurotoxicity.
A variety of exposure regimens of cigarette smoke have been used in animal models of lung diseases. In this study, we compared biological responses of smoke exposure in rats, using different smoke concentrations (wet total particulate matter [WTPM]), daily exposure durations, and total days of exposure. As a range-finding acute study, we first compared pulmonary responses between SD and F344 strains after a single nose-only exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke or LPS. Secondly, F344 rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 or 13 weeks under the comparable daily exposure dose (WTPM concentration x daily exposure duration; according to Haber’s rule) but at a different WTPM concentration or daily exposure duration. Blood carboxylhemoglobin was increased linearly to the WTPM concentration, while urinary nicotine plus cotinine value was higher for the longer daily exposure than the corresponding shorter exposure groups. Gamma glutamyl transferase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was increased dose dependently after 2 and 13 weeks of cigarette smoke exposure, while the neutrophil content in BALF was not increased notably. Smoke-exposed groups showed reduced body weight gain and increased relative lung and heart weights. While BALF parameters and the relative lung weights suggest pulmonary responses, histopathological examination showed epithelial lesions mainly in the upper respiratory organs (nose and larynx). Collectively, the results indicate that, under the employed study design, the equivalent daily exposure dose (exposure concentration x duration) induces equivalent pulmonary responses in rats.
To assess modification of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in mice fed a high-fat diet, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal rodent diet or a high-fat diet for 8 weeks and then treated once intraperitoneally with thioacetamide at 50 mg/kg body weight. At 24 and 48 hours after administration, massive centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis was observed in mice fed the normal rodent diet, while the necrosis was less severe in mice fed the high-fat diet. In contrast, severe swelling of hepatocytes was observed in mice fed the high-fat diet. In addition, mice fed the high-fat diet displayed more than a 4-fold higher number of BrdU-positive hepatocytes compared with mice fed the normal rodent diet at 48 hours after thioacetamide treatment. To clarify the mechanisms by which the hepatic necrosis was attenuated, we investigated exposure to thioacetamide and one of its metabolites, the expression of CYP2E1, which converts thioacetamide to reactive metabolites, and the content of glutathione S-transferases in the liver. However, the reduced hepatocellular necrosis noted in mice fed the high-fat diet could not be explained by the differences in exposure to thioacetamide or thioacetamide sulfoxide or by differences in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. On the other hand, at 8 hours after thioacetamide administration, hepatic total glutathione in mice fed the high-fat diet was significantly lower than that in mice fed the normal diet. Hence, decreased hepatic glutathione amount is a candidate for the mechanism of the attenuated necrosis. In conclusion, this study revealed that thioacetamide-induced hepatic necrosis was attenuated in mice fed the high-fat diet.
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is now widely used in various research fields, including toxicology. However, information about the background pathology of this species is scarce. Here, we report a case of rhabdomyosarcoma that spontaneously occurred in a common marmoset. A 44-month-old male common marmoset was euthanized due to bilateral hind limb paralysis. At necropsy, a 2×2×5-cm intramuscular mass was observed in the lower right back. Histologically, the mass was mainly composed of interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for myogenin, desmin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells contained bundles of myofilaments with Z-band-like structures. Thus, the tumor was diagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous rhabdomyosarcoma that was definitely diagnosed in the common marmoset.
A male golden retriever of unknown age presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous masses from the left elbow to the digits. Histopathologically, multiple tumor foci had formed from the dermis to the subcutaneous tissue. Tumor foci consisted of a vascular structure, alveolar structure and solid proliferative area. The borders among these areas were not clear. Some neoplastic cells resembled a mature endothelium, while others were large pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were usually strongly positive for CD31 and often positive for PROX-1, the lymphatic endothelial cell marker. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a hemangiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation.
We report a biphasic malignant mesothelioma in an aged female F344/DuCrlCrlj rat. Macroscopically, multiple pale brown nodules were observed in the abdominal cavity with retention of bloody ascites. Histopathologically, the tumor cells spread over the peritoneum and formed masses on the surface and underlying adipose tissues. The tumor cells dominantly proliferated in a solid, nodular or nest-like pattern with modest amount of fibrillar connective tissues, which contained hyaluronan. The tumor consisted of ovoid, polygonal or spindle-shaped cells that possessed eosinophilic cytoplasms including glycogen; some tumor cells showed a signet-ring-like structure. Multinucleated cells and mitosis were found frequently, and direct invasion to intra-abdominal organs and intravascular metastasis to the liver were observed. Immunohistochemically, keratin and mesothelin were strongly positive in most of tumor cells, while vimentin was mainly positive in spindle-shaped cells. Podoplanin was also positive, particularly in the cell membrane of tumor cells. Electron microscopically, tumor cells showed an intercellular desmosome-like structure, basement membrane and microvillus. We diagnosed the case as a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with a sarcomatoid growth pattern and signet-ring-like structure.
Membranous glomerulonephropathy can be experimentally induced in rats, but spontaneous cases have been rarely reported. In this report, we present a typical case of spontaneous membranous glomerulonephropathy in a rat. A male Hatano low-avoidance (LAA) strain rat had a tumor mass on the right auricle, and was sacrificed at 41 weeks of age. Urinary screening by reagent strips revealed intense proteinuria. Histological tests revealed frequent presence of irregularly sized eosinophilic hyaline materials on the capillary wall and in the mesangium of renal glomeruli. Immunofluorescence revealed granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 in the glomeruli. Subepithelial dense deposits were observed by electron microscopy accompanied by podocyte foot process effacement and occasional irregular thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. The rat also developed chronic lymphocytic pancreatitis, and the tumor mass on the right auricle was diagnosed as a fibrosarcoma. Screening tests for antibodies against major infectious agents and antinuclear antibody were negative. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence analyses suggested the presence of an autoantibody against the pancreatic component. The glomerulopathy was considered an early stage of membranous glomerulonephropathy.
The protein expressions of steroidogenic factor l (SF-l) and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) were investigated immunohistochemically for 53 spontaneous pituitary adenomas of the pars distalis from male Crl:CD(SD) rats. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-positive/prolactin (PRL)-negative and LH-negative/PRL-positive adenomas showed that the expression of SF-1 and Pit-1 was exclusively related to the immunoreactivity of LH and PRL, respectively. All double-positive adenomas (positive for both LH and PRL) were positive for Pit-1 and were supposed to be derived from PRL cells, although some of them also showed SF-1 immunoreactivity. In addition, all null cell adenomas (negative for all anterior pituitary hormones) were positive for SF-1 and negative for Pit-1, indicating that they originated from the gonadotroph cell lineage. This is the first report focusing on the application of transcription factors for the classification of rat pituitary adenomas.
To evaluate the potential role of DNA repair in bladder carcinogenesis, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of expression of various DNA repair enzymes and γ-H2AX, a high-sensitivity marker of DNA double-strand breaks, in the urothelium of male F344 rats treated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN), a bladder-specific carcinogen. Our results clearly demonstrated that γ-H2AX aggregation was specifically generated in nuclei of bladder epithelial cells of BBN-treated rats, which was not found in untreated controls or mesenchymal cells. γ-H2AX-positive cells were detected not only in hyperplastic and neoplastic areas but also in the normal-like urothelium after BBN treatment. These data indicate that γ-H2AX has potential as a useful biomarker for early detection of genotoxicity in the rat urinary bladder. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating expression of γ-H2AX during bladder carcinogenesis.
Some anticancer therapeutic antibodies are designed to act through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). It has been reported that there are many membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs) that inhibit CDC. In the present study, we examined the expression of two mCRPs, the complement receptor 1-related gene/protein Y (Crry) and the decay-accelerating factor CD55, in three normal rats by immunohistochemistry. Crry and CD55 were detected widely in rat organs and tissues. Crry was found mainly in the urinary, digestive, respiratory, immunohematopoietic, circulatory and neuroendocrine systems. CD55 was found in the urinary, digestive and neuroendocrine systems. However, the two molecules were expressed in separate cells within the same organ. These results suggest that the distribution of mCRPs is related to the strict regulation of CDC activation in these organs and tissues and that the two molecules have a nonoverlapping expression pattern, a fact indicating specific roles in CDC regulation.
Historical control data of tumor incidence were collected from the control groups (215 animals of each sex) in four recent carcinogenicity studies that were started between 2005 to 2009 (terminally sacrificed between 2007 and 2011) at BoZo Research Center Inc. (Gotemba, Shizuoka, Japan) using Fischer 344 rats (F344/DuCrlCrlj). These data were compared to the previous historical control data (from 1990 to 2004, previously reported) in the same facility. In the results, the incidence of C-cell adenoma in the thyroid tended to increase in both sexes in recent years (30.8% for males and 24.4% for females in 2005–2009) as compared with the previous data (17.4% and 20.1% for males and 11.5% and 11.8% for females in 1990–1999 and 2000–2004, respectively). In addition, the incidences of pancreatic islet cell adenoma in males and uterine adenocarcinoma tended to increase from around 2000 and remained high in recent years (incidences of islet cell adenoma in males of 10.5%, 17.1% and 20.5% in 1990–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2009; incidences of uterine adenocarcinoma of 3.3%, 12.0% and 13.5% in 1990–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2009, respectively). There was no apparent difference in the incidence of other tumors.
The first joint Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology (JSTP) and National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri, Ewas held on January 29th at Okura Frontier Hotel in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, in advance of the JSTP’s 29th Annual Meeting. The goal of this Symposium was to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers Epresentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, select images that were used for audience voting or discussion, and the voting results. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium include: treatment-related atypical hepatocellular foci of cellular alteration in B6C3F1 mice; purulent ventriculoencephalitis in a young BALB/c mouse; a subcutaneous malignant schwannoma in a RccHan:WIST rat; spontaneous nasal septum hyalinosis/eosinophilic substance in B6C3F1 mice; a rare pancreatic ductal cell adenoma in a young Lewis rat; eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia in a transgenic mouse model; hyaline glomerulopathy in two female ddY mice; treatment-related intrahepatic erythrocytes in B6C3F1 mice; treatment-related subendothelial hepatocytes in B6C3F1 mice; spontaneous thyroid follicular cell vacuolar degeneration in a cynomolgus monkey; congenital hepatic fibrosis in a 1-year-old cat; a spontaneous adenocarcinoma of the middle ear in a young Crl:CD(SD) rat; and finally a series of cases illustrating some differences between cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in Sprague Dawley and F344 rats.