Although several liposomal drugs, including liposomal doxorubicin, have been approved, the etiology of the pathological responses caused by their physicochemical properties remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the pathological changes in the liver and the gallbladder of dogs following a single injection of liposomal doxorubicin (1 or 2.5 mg/kg) or an empty liposomal formulation (i.e., liposomal formulation without doxorubicin, ca. 21 mg/kg as lipid content). Injection of liposomal doxorubicin or the empty liposomal formulation induced hemorrhagic changes in the liver and the gallbladder. These changes were accompanied by minimal cellular infiltration with no obvious changes in the blood vessels. As there were no differences in the incidence and severity of hemorrhage between the groups administered comparable amounts of total lipid, the physicochemical properties of the liposomal formulation rather than an active pharmacological ingredient, doxorubicin, were associated with the hemorrhagic changes. Furthermore, decreased cytoplasmic granules with low electron density in mast cells beneath the endothelium of the hepatic vein were observed in the liver of dogs treated with liposomal doxorubicin or empty liposomal formulation. Injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser induced comparable hemorrhage in dogs, implying that hemorrhage caused by injection of liposomal doxorubicin or the empty liposomal formulation could be attributed to the histamine released from mast cells. The absence of similar hemorrhagic lesions in other species commonly used in toxicology studies (i.e., rats and monkeys), as well as humans, is due to the lack of mast cells beneath the endothelium of the hepatic vein in these species.
Intratracheal instillation is the introduction of a substance directly into the trachea. Intratracheal instillation has been used to investigate the lung toxicity of several chemicals and requires the suspension or dissolution of test material in a vehicle for even dispersal throughout the lung. Importantly, the toxicities of vehicles used in intratracheal instillation studies are generally considered to be insignificant. Hence, evaluating the influence of different vehicles on the lung due to intratracheal instillation is crucial. We examined the toxic effects of pure water, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 0.5% Kolliphor® P188 (KP188), 0.1% Tween 20 in saline, and 1.0% BSA in PBS. These vehicles were administered to male Crl:CD(SD) rats by a single intratracheal instillation. On day 3, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the right lung was collected and processed for cell counting and biochemical analysis, while the left lung was used for histopathological examination. Accumulation of alveolar macrophages was observed in all vehicle-treated groups but was minimal in the group administered saline, somewhat higher in the groups administered pure water, PBS, 0.1% Tween 20, and 1% BSA, and notably higher in the group administered 0.5% KP188. The results from BALF analysis indicated that intratracheal instillation of 0.5% KP188 also induced alveolar damage. Additionally, administering pure water did not appear to cause tissue damage. Eosinophil infiltration in the interstitial regions was histopathologically observed. Altogether, the results of this study are helpful for the selection of appropriate vehicles for use in intratracheal instillation studies.
A 40-week-old male spontaneous diabetic Torii rat, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, was found to have marked urinary calculi with hematuria in the urinary bladder on necropsy. Histological findings in the urinary bladder included a papillary growth pattern with a fibrovascular stroma without atypia. Fine granular materials in the bladder lumen were positive for Von Kossa staining but negative for periodic acid-Schiff or Gram staining, indicating no apparent bacterial infection in the urinary bladder. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the urinary calculi were magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals (struvite). On the basis of the results, the lesion was diagnosed as urothelial hyperplasia with calculi (papillomatosis). Chronic inciting stimuli by struvite crystals were considered the primary cause of the bladder findings.
A smooth white focus was macroscopically observed in the right ventricular endocardium in a 15-month-old male beagle from a 4-week oral gavage toxicity study. This lesion likely arose from myofibroblasts and was diagnosed as subendocardial nodular proliferation of myofibroblasts. This lesion was observed only in one animal in a low dose group and was an incidental finding. Histopathologically, the well-demarcated nodule comprised abundant collagen containing spindle cells arranged in intermediate to long streams and formed broad interlacing fascicles. The spindle cells had an indistinct cell border with round to elongated hyperchromatic nuclei or nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and indistinct nucleoli. Furthermore, these cells were weakly positive for S100 and positive for α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and vimentin. Based on the histological features, the proliferating spindle cells resembled phenotypes of smooth muscles or myofibroblasts. However, the proliferating cells lacked well-differentiated smooth muscle cells, cigar-shaped nuclei, and well-developed reticulin fibers outlining individual cells. This study describes the morphological characteristics of an endocardial proliferative lesion in the right ventricle of a beagle.
This case report describes angiomatous hyperplasia in the heart which is an unusual location in a young male Sprague-Dawley rat in a short-term toxicity study. Histologically, the lesion was characterized by blood-filled vascular channels of variable diameter lined by a thin wall and surrounded by a thin fibrous stroma and minimal lympho-plasmacytic and neutrophilic infiltrate in the apex of the heart. Immunohistopathology using CD31 confirmed the blood vessel origin, and using Ki67 confirmed low cell-proliferative activity in the vascular endothelial cells. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous angiomatous hyperplasia in the heart of a young rat.
A rare spontaneous hepatic leiomyosarcoma with osteosarcomatous differentiation was observed in a female beagle dog and its morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics were examined. Upon necropsy, an endoceliac mass originating from the liver was detected, which was composed of hematoid fluid-filled cysts and white to grayish solid tissue. There were no macroscopic findings in other organ systems. Histopathologically, the hepatic mass consisted of two different mesenchymal components. One form was spindle cells arranged in interlacing fascicles immunohistochemically positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and smoothelin, indicating leiomyosarcomatous differentiation. The other form was composed of short spindle cells positive for S-100 and was producing various amounts of eosinophilic osteoid and trabecula-like matrices positive for osteocalcin, indicating osteosarcomatous differentiation. In addition, invasive growth in the hepatic parenchyma and cell atypia were observed. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as hepatic leiomyosarcoma with osteosarcomatous differentiation (malignant mesenchymoma), which might be derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.
Pathological evaluation of juvenile toxicity studies requires the understanding of normal tissue development at different ages. Here, we report the morphological features of the neonatal mouse intestine, focusing on crypt fission. Postnatal day (PND) 7 and 14 mice showed fewer crypts and less mature epithelial morphology compared to PND 21 and 28. Crypt fission occurred in three stages: 1) flattening of the crypt base into a skirt shape, 2) penetration of myofibroblasts into the crypt base center, and 3) complete separation of a single crypt into two daughter crypts. The ratio of crypt fission to total number of crypts was the highest at PND 14 and 7 in the jejunum and colon, respectively. Crypt fission, a key phenomenon for balance or imbalance in epithelial cell hierarchy, including stem and differentiated cells, is related to tissue injury repair and tumorigenesis. Therefore, examining crypt fission can provide valuable insights into current conditions of intestine.
Histopathological information about spontaneous lesions in aged Hannover Wistar rats is limited. In this study, we describe spontaneous lesions found in 39 male RccHan:WIST rats used as a control in a carcinogenicity study. Neoplastic lesions were frequently seen in the endocrine system, such as pituitary adenomas in the pars distalis. This strain exhibited a high incidence of thymoma (10.3%), compared to other strains. We encountered an oligodendroglioma, a pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia, and a prostate adenocarcinoma, which are comparatively rare in rats. While the variety and incidence of non-neoplastic lesions were similar to those in other strains, several interesting lesions occurred with relatively high incidence, including “harderianization” of the extraorbital lacrimal gland, common bile duct ectasia, and hyperplasia of pulmonary endocrine cells in the lung. Furthermore, comparative analyses demonstrated that the severity of chronic progressive nephropathy and murine progressive cardiomyopathy in RccHan:WIST rats was less than that in F344 rats.
Educational activities and training opportunities in toxicologic pathology are major goals of 9 formally established Toxicologic
Pathology Societies and the International Academy of Toxicologic Pathology. Some Toxicologic Pathology Societies have
examination-based certification programs while others accept certification or registration by veterinary pathology organizations including
the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, the European College of Veterinary Pathologists. We summarize here the
membership numbers and current activities of formally established Toxicologic Pathology Socities.